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Huang Cai-Hong CH Medical College, Eye Institute of Xiamen University, South Xiang'an Road, Xiamen, Fujian, 361102, - - 2014
Purpose. The purpose is to investigate the mechanism of subconjunctival fibrosis caused by benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which is the most common preservative in ophthalmic preparations. Methods. The left eyes of male Sprague-Dawley rats were topically treated with 0.01% BAC or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) twice daily for one month. Primary ...
Choi Seunghye S College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, 52 Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-808, Republic of - - 2014
Evaluation of the eye irritation is essential in the development of new cosmetic products. Draize rabbit eye irritation test has been widely used in which chemicals are directly applied to rabbit eye, and the symptoms and signs of eyes are scored. However, due to the invasive procedure, it causes substantial ...
Ehrenberg Moshe M Medicure Technologies Ltd. , Caesarea , Israel - - 2014
Abstract Purpose of the study: The novel combination of 0.1% sodium hyaluronate (HA) and 5.0% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) into one eyedrop was investigated to test the hypothesis of its increased relief of dry eye syndrome (DES). Materials and methods: We evaluated HA and PVP, either alone, or in combination, by utilizing ...
Müller Anneliese A Institute for Milk Hygiene, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210, Vienna, - - 2014
Tolerance of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to sublethal concentrations of disinfectants has been frequently reported. Particularly quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) are often used in disinfectants and also as antiseptics in food industry and hospitals. Recently, we described Tn6188, a novel transposon in L. monocytogenes ...
Fukuda Masamichi M Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa Medical University , Ishikawa, Japan - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: We investigated the transcorneal penetration of commercial ophthalmic formulations containing timolol maleate in rabbit eyes. Methods: One drop (30 μL) of each ophthalmic solution (Xalacom(®), DuoTrav(®), Cosopt(®), and Timoptol(®)) was administered to the conjunctival sac of the rabbits' eyes and the timolol maleate aqueous humor concentration was measured by ...
Abouassi Thaer - - 2014
Several studies have shown the antibacterial effectiveness of 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) in both in vitro and in vivo studies. In this way, CHX comes directly in contact with saliva. This in vitro study aimed at investigating the possible neutralizing effect of saliva on CHX. Saliva samples (12 ml) were collected ...
Maksić Jelena J Department of Drug Control and Examination, Sector for Pharmacy, Military Medical Academy, Crnotravska 17, Belgrade, - - 2014
In this paper, chromatographic analysis of active substance olopatadine hydrochloride, which is used in eye drops as antihistaminic agent, and its impurity E isomer by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and application of design of experiments (DoE) methodology are presented. In addition, benzalkonium chloride is very often used as a ...
Hagi-Pavli E E Bart's and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
Oral healthcare products are well tolerated and while adverse occurrences are rare there is still a need to explore the interaction between these products and the oral mucosa. This study assessed the effects of oral healthcare ingredients: sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), a detergent; cinnamic aldehyde (CA), a flavouring agent; and ...
Vázquez-Sánchez Daniel D Seafood Microbiology and Technology Section, Marine Research Institute (IIM), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Vigo, - - 2014
The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils to remove the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus from food-processing facilities. The effectiveness of 19 essential oils against planktonic cells of S. aureus was firstly assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration. Planktonic cells showed a wide variability in resistance to ...
Monzillo Vincenzina V Department of Infectious Diseases, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and cytotoxic effect of the compound SIAB-GV3, a new formulation presenting as an aqueous suspension of silicon dioxide (SiO2) functionalized with silver (Ag+) nanoparticles and benzalkonium. The product is formulated as an adjuvant for the treatment of inflammatory diseases ...
Lee Hyun Joo HJ Department of Ophthalmology, Eulji Medical Center, Eulji University School of Medicine , Seoul , Korea - - 2014
Abstract Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the effect of prostaglandin analogues preserved with either 0.015% or 0.001% benzalkoium chloride (BAK); or 0.001% polyquad (PQ) on the ocular surface of rabbit eyes. Methods: Forty white rabbits were randomized to receive four-times daily instillation of either 0.0015% tafluprost ...
Mohapatra Rajaram R Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha 'O' Anusandhan University, Khandagiri Square, Bhubaneswar, OR, - - 2014
The objective of this report was to evaluate the transcorneal permeation of diclofenac potassium (DCP) as a function of temperature from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) matrix film containing triethanolamine (TEM) as plasticizer and benzalkonium chloride (BKC) as preservative. Activation energy (Ea), enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS) and free energy (ΔG) of permeation, ...
Bates N N Veterinary Poisons Information Service (VPIS), Medical Toxicology and Information Services, Mary Sheridan House, 13 St Thomas Street, London SE1 9RY, - - 2014
Benzalkonium chloride is commonly found in household products. This retrospective study examined 245 cases of feline exposure to benzalkonium chloride-containing products reported to the Veterinary Poisons Information Service (VPIS). A single route of exposure was reported in 188 cats (ingestion 126, skin 58, buccal 4); 57 cats had multiple routes. ...
Salem Hesham H Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, October University for Modern Sciences and Arts (MSA), 6th October City 11787, - - 2014
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and rapid resolution liquid chromatographic (RRLC) methods have been developed and validated for the separation and quantitation of both or either of two ternary mixtures present in ophthalmic solutions. The first mixture contains chloramphenicol, dexamethasone sodium phosphate and tetryzoline HCl (TZH); while ...
Holló Gábor G Department of Ophthalmology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary, - - 2014
A new preservative-free fixed-dose combination of 0.0015% tafluprost, a prostaglandin F2α analog, and 0.5% timolol (TAF/TIM; Santen Oy, Tampere, Finland), a beta-adrenergic antagonist has recently been developed. The intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction with TAF/TIM in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension is similar to that of other prostaglandin-timolol fixed-combination products. Patients ...
Barabino Stefano S Clinica Oculistica, University of Genoa, via Siccardi 14, San Remo, 18038, Italy - - 2014
PURPOSE. To test the hypothesis that benzalkonium chloride (BAK) alters the ocular surface in normal and dry eye mice, and that a BAK-free commercially available anti-glaucoma treatment does not induce the same effects. METHODS. Eight to 12-week-old female C57BL6 mice were used in normal environmental conditions and in a controlled ...
Goldberg Ivan Am IA Discipline of Ophthalmology, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; Glaucoma Unit, Sydney Eye Hospital, Sydney, Australia; Eye Associates, Sydney, - - 2014
Ocular surface disease (OSD) is relatively common in glaucoma patients. OSD symptoms could be linked to prolonged exposure to preservatives in anti-glaucoma medications, especially benzalkonium chloride (BAK). The OBSERVE clinical audit was designed to track the impact of intraocular pressure lowering medications in patients with evidence of OSD to test ...
Guzmán Mauricio M Immunology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, National Academy of Medicine/CONICET, Pacheco de Melo 3081, Buenos Aires, C1425AUM, - - 2014
Purpose: To evaluate the role of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation in eye drop preservative toxicity and the effect of topical NF-κB inhibitors on preservative-facilitated allergic conjunctivitis. Methods: Balb/c mice were instilled ovalbumin (OVA) combined with benzalkonium chloride (BAK) and/or NF-κB inhibitors in both eyes. After immunization, T cell ...
Mariam Solomon H - - 2014
Food-borne infections cause huge economic and human life losses worldwide. The most common contaminants of foods include Listeria monocytogenes Salmonellae and Staphylococcus aureus. L. monocytogenes is most notorious due to its tolerance to common food preservation methods and the risks it poses, including higher fatality rates. Safer, more efficacious control ...
Perry Arthur W AW Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. ; Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, - - 2014
Sandle Tim T Head of Microbiology, Bio Products Laboratory, Elstree, Hertfordshire, United - - 2014
To determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of a range of cleanroom fungi against three disinfectants common to the pharmaceutical and healthcare sectors: biguanide (Chlorhexidine) and two quaternary ammonium compounds (benzalkonium chloride and Cetrimide). The in vitro fungicidal activities of the three biocides were studied against 112 cleanroom fungal isolates ...
Xu Dongyang D College of Light Industry and Food Sciences, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong, - - 2014
Phenotypic and genotypic tolerance in 71 Listeria monocytogenes isolates from different varieties of foods to benzalkonium chloride (BC) and cadmium were investigated by susceptibility test and molecular methods. To investigate the role of efflux pumps in BC tolerance, reserpine, an efflux pump inhibitor, was added to the BC tolerant strains. ...
Hulse R P RP Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK; Cancer Biology, Division of Cancer and Stem Cells, School of - - 2014
Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is best known as a key regulator of the formation of new blood vessels. Neutralization of VEGF-A with anti-VEGF therapy e.g. bevacizumab, can be painful, and this is hypothesized to result from a loss of VEGF-A-mediated neuroprotection. The multiple vegf-a gene products consist of two ...
Muankaew Chutimon C Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Iceland, Hofsvallagata 53, IS-107 Reykjavik, Iceland; Faculty of Pharmacy, Siam University, 38 Petkasem Road, Phasicharoen, Bangkae, Bangkok 10160, - - 2014
In effort to prepare an eye drop formulation of irbesartan, the effect of γ-cyclodextrin complexation on irbesartan solubilization in aqueous solutions was investigated. The optimum cyclodextrin concentration for formation of irbesartan/cyclodextrin inclusion complex was found to be 10% (w/v) and the solubility of ionized irbesartan/γ-cyclodextrin complex (at pH 7.2) was ...
Ortiz Sagrario S Departamento de Tecnología de Alimentos, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Madrid, - - 2014
Disinfectants, such as benzalkonium chloride (BAC), are commonly used to control Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogens in food processing plants. Prior studies have demonstrated that the resistance to BAC of L. monocytogenes was associated with the prolonged survival of three strains of molecular serotype 1/2a in an Iberian pork processing ...
Salem Hesham H Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, October University for Modern Sciences and Arts (MSA), 11787 6th October City, - - 2014
This work represents a comparative study of different aspects of manipulating ratio spectra, which are: double divisor ratio spectra derivative (DR-DD), area under curve of derivative ratio (DR-AUC) and its novel approach, namely area under the curve correction method (AUCCM) applied for overlapped spectra; successive derivative of ratio spectra (SDR) ...
Lin Zhirong Z Eye institute & affiliated Xiamen Eye Center of Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, - - 2014
PURPOSE. To investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of serine protease inhibitor A3K (SERPINA3K) on the formation of ocular surface squamous metaplasia in a mouse dry eye model induced by topical benzalkonium chloride (BAC). METHODS. The eye drops containing SERPINA3K were topically administered during the induction of BAC-induced dry eye. ...
Guzman-Aranguez Ana A Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology IV, Faculty of Optics and Optometry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid , Madrid, Spain - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: Treatment with topical eye drops for long-standing ocular diseases like allergy can induce detrimental side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro cytotoxicity of commercially preserved and unpreserved anti-allergic eye drops on the viability and barrier function of monolayer and stratified human corneal-limbal epithelial ...
Wagner Justin P JP Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1749, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Hirschsprung's disease is characterized by a developmental arrest of neural crest cell migration, causing distal aganglionosis. Transplanted cells derived from the neural crest may regenerate enteric ganglia in this condition. We investigated the potential of skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) to engraft and to differentiate into enteric ganglia in aganglionic rat ...
Chen Li-Hong LH Department of Molecular Biology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, United States of - - 2014
We characterized key components and major targets of the c-di-GMP signaling pathways in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, identified a new c-di-GMP-inducible exopolysaccharide responsible for motility inhibition, cell aggregation, and enhanced tolerance to disinfectants and desiccation, and provided first insights into the role of c-di-GMP signaling in listerial virulence. Genome-wide ...
Lim Hong-Gook HG Xenotransplantation Research Center, Seoul National University Hospital Clinical Research Institute ; Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of - - 2014
A preclinical study was conducted for evaluating a valved conduit manufactured with a glutaraldehyde (GA)-fixed bovine pericardium treated using an anticalcification protocol. Bovine pericardia were decellularized, fixed with GA in an organic solvent, and detoxified. We prepared a valved conduit using these bovine pericardia and a specially designed mold. The ...
Forbes Sarah S Manchester Pharmacy - - 2014
Microbicides (biocides) play an important role in the prevention and treatment of infections. Whilst there is currently little evidence for in-use treatment failures attributable to acquired reductions in microbicide susceptibility, the susceptibility of some bacteria can be reduced by sub-lethal level laboratory exposure to certain agents. In this investigation, a ...
Chang Caitlin C Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Western Ontario, 339 Windermere Road, London ON, N6A 5A5, - - 2014
Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a controversial ophthalmic preservative because of its prominent side effect profile. In this study, we examined the mechanism of BAK toxicity in human trabecular meshwork cells (HTMC) and compared the effects of BAK to tafluprost free acid, which is an active form of tafluprost commercially available ...
Pletzer Daniel - - 2014
The Gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of the devastating disease fire blight in rosaceous plants such as apple, pear, quince, raspberry, and cotoneaster. In order to survive and multiply in a host, microbes must be able to circumvent the toxic effects of antimicrobial plant compounds, such as ...
Dubey Akhilesh A Research Scholar, Department of Pharmaceutics, Bhagwant University, Ajmer, Rajasthan, - - 2014
Stimuli-sensitive hydrogels are hydrophilic, three-dimensional, polymeric network structure capable of imbibing large amounts of water or biological fluids on stimulation, such as pH, temperature, and ionic change. Owing to the drawback of conventional therapy for ocular delivery, and to provide additive effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction, stimuli sensitive hydrogel ...
Jiao Jian J Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, and Key Laboratory of Nasal Diseases, Beijing Institute of Otolaryngology, Beijing, - - 2014
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the corticosteroids, the antihistamines, and the preservatives benzalkonium chloride (BKC) and potassium sorbate (PS) in intranasal medications on human nasal epithelial ciliary beat frequency (CBF). Methods: Primary ciliated epithelial cell cultures from the human nasal mucosa of chronic ...
Tu Elmer Y EY University of Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary, Chicago, IL, - - 2014
Medical treatment of ophthalmic diseases relies primarily on the use of multidose drugs. Short term use is highly effective usually with little local toxicity. However, chronic use of these preparations not only increases the likelihood of microbial contamination and secondary ocular infection, but also of toxicity from the drug formulation ...
Oh Seungdae S School of Civil and Environmental - - 2014
Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) are disinfectants widely used in a variety of clinical and environmental settings to prevent microbial infections, and are frequently detected in non-target environments such as aquatic and engineered biological systems, even at toxic levels. Therefore, microbial degradation of BACs has important ramifications for alleviating disinfectant toxicity in ...
Dutta Vikrant V Departments of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences - - 2014
The enzyme triphenylmethane reductase (TMR) reduces toxic triphenylmethane dyes into colorless, non-toxic derivatives, and TMR-producing microorganisms have been proposed as bioremediation tools. Analysis of the genome of Listeria monocytogenes H7858 (1998-1999 hot dog outbreak) revealed that the plasmid (pLM80) of this strain harboring a gene cassette (bcrABC) conferring resistance to ...
Wagner Justin P JP Department of Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, - - 2014
Enteric neuromuscular disease is a characteristic of several disease states, including Hirschsprung disease, esophageal achalasia, Chagas disease, and gastroparesis. Medical therapy for these conditions is limited, and surgical intervention may incur significant morbidity. Alternatively, transplantation of neural progenitor cells may regenerate enteric ganglia. Existing aganglionosis model systems are limited by ...
Konstas Anastasios G P AG 1st University Department of Ophthalmology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 1 Kyriakidi Street, 546 36, Thessaloniki, Greece, - - 2014
To compare the 24-h intraocular pressure (IOP) control and tolerability of travoprost/timolol benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-free (TTFC) vs. latanoprost/timolol fixed combination preserved with BAK (LTFC) in open-angle glaucoma patients insufficiently controlled with latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy given once in the evening. The authors have conducted a prospective, observer-masked, active-controlled, cross-over, comparison study. ...
Torricelli Andre A M AA Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio; University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, - - 2014
Studies suggest that standard corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) is a safe and effective treatment to stiffen the cornea for keratoconus and other ectatic corneal disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the biomechanical effects of transepithelial benzalkonium chloride-EDTA (BAC-EDTA) riboflavin-UVA crosslinking to standard epithelium-off riboflavin-UVA crosslinking in ...
Caballero A A Department of Microbiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center , Jackson, Mississippi , USA - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of a high-affinity human monoclonal antibody Fab fragment to Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin (LTM14 Fab) as therapy for S. aureus keratitis. Methods: A single topical drop of the LTM14 Fab antibody to alpha-toxin alone, or in 0.006% benzalkonium chloride (BAK), was applied every 30 min to ...
Sezgin Akçay Betül İlkay BI 1 Umraniye Research and Training Hospital , Eye Clinic, İstanbul, Turkey - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: To compare the toxicity effect of polyquaternium (PQ) and benzalkonium chloride (BAK) preservation of travoprost on the ocular surface. Methods: This prospective study included 44 eyes of 44 patients with newly diagnosed glaucoma. Twenty-two patients used PQ-preserved travoprost (PQ group) and 22 patients used BAK-preserved travoprost (BAK group). ...
Huang Chaoyang - - 2014
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes serious HCMV-related diseases in immunocompromised people. Vaccination is the most effective measure to control infection with the pathogen, yet no vaccine has been licensed till now. We performed a head-to-head comparison of the protective abilities of multiple DNA vaccines in murine model of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) ...
Sanford Mark M Adis, 41 Centorian Drive, Private Bag 65901, Mairangi Bay, North Shore, 0754, Auckland, New Zealand, - - 2014
Latanoprost is an ester prodrug prostaglandin F2α analogue that is a selective agonist of endogenous prostanoid FP receptors and that reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) by increasing the uveoscleral outflow of aqueous humour. Preservative-free (PF) latanoprost [Monoprost(®)] is a new formulation of latanoprost that is approved for use in the EU ...
Kim Bryan Y BY University of Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary, Chicago, - - 2014
To describe the clinical features and management strategies in patients whose limbal stem cell (LSC) disease reversed with medical therapy. Retrospective case series. Twenty-two eyes of 15 patients seen at 3 tertiary referral centers between 2007 and 2011 with 3 months or more of follow-up. Medical records of patients with ...
Wang Shaojuan S Department of Reproductive Medical Center, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430060, P.R. China ; Department of Gynecology, Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518172, P.R. - - 2014
Pregnancy is associated with complex immunoreactions. In the present study, the effect of SB-273005, an antagonist of αvβ3 integrin, on the alterations of T helper (Th) cells and their derived cytokines that occur during pregnancy was investigated in mice. Five non-pregnant mice were used as a negative control. Mice were ...
Oğuz Merve M Erciyes University Engineering Faculty Environmental Engineering Department, 38039 Kayseri, Turkey. Electronic address: - - 2014
In this study, environmental risks of selected pharmaceuticals were investigated to assess potential hazards. Ciprofloxacin, Clarithromycin, Cefuroxime axetil, antibiotics, Benzalkoniuman antiseptic, Paracetamol, an analgesic, and Naproxen, an anti-inflammatory, were selected due to their high rate of usage in Turkey. Ciprofloxacin was found to have the highest risk due to its ...
Sunada Atsuko A Department of Medical Technology, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka, Japan; Department of Biomedical Informatics, Division of Health Sciences, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
To evaluate the effectiveness of topical agents for the treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Laboratory research. Fifty-six Acanthamoeba isolates from 56 patients with clinically proven AK were studied. The effectiveness of 7 agents against Acanthamoeba cysts was determined in vitro. The agents were 1.0% povidone-iodine, 0.05% benzalkonium chloride (BZC), 0.02% chlorhexidine ...
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