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Chang Caitlin C Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Western Ontario, 339 Windermere Road, London ON, N6A 5A5, - - 2014
Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a controversial ophthalmic preservative because of its prominent side effect profile. In this study, we examined the mechanism of BAK toxicity in human trabecular meshwork cells (HTMC) and compared the effects of BAK to tafluprost free acid, which is an active form of tafluprost commercially available ...
Jiao Jian J Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, and Key Laboratory of Nasal Diseases, Beijing Institute of Otolaryngology, Beijing, - - 2014
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the corticosteroids, the antihistamines, and the preservatives benzalkonium chloride (BKC) and potassium sorbate (PS) in intranasal medications on human nasal epithelial ciliary beat frequency (CBF). Methods: Primary ciliated epithelial cell cultures from the human nasal mucosa of chronic ...
Oh Seungdae S School of Civil and Environmental - - 2014
Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) are disinfectants widely used in a variety of clinical and environmental settings to prevent microbial infections, and are frequently detected in non-target environments such as aquatic and engineered biological systems, even at toxic levels. Therefore, microbial degradation of BACs has important ramifications for alleviating disinfectant toxicity in ...
Dutta Vikrant V Departments of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences - - 2014
The enzyme triphenylmethane reductase (TMR) reduces toxic triphenylmethane dyes into colorless, non-toxic derivatives, and TMR-producing microorganisms have been proposed as bioremediation tools. Analysis of the genome of Listeria monocytogenes H7858 (1998-1999 hot dog outbreak) revealed that the plasmid (pLM80) of this strain harboring a gene cassette (bcrABC) conferring resistance to ...
Wagner Justin P JP Department of Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, - - 2014
Enteric neuromuscular disease is a characteristic of several disease states, including Hirschsprung disease, esophageal achalasia, Chagas disease, and gastroparesis. Medical therapy for these conditions is limited, and surgical intervention may incur significant morbidity. Alternatively, transplantation of neural progenitor cells may regenerate enteric ganglia. Existing aganglionosis model systems are limited by ...
Konstas Anastasios G P AG 1st University Department of Ophthalmology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 1 Kyriakidi Street, 546 36, Thessaloniki, Greece, - - 2014
To compare the 24-h intraocular pressure (IOP) control and tolerability of travoprost/timolol benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-free (TTFC) vs. latanoprost/timolol fixed combination preserved with BAK (LTFC) in open-angle glaucoma patients insufficiently controlled with latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy given once in the evening. The authors have conducted a prospective, observer-masked, active-controlled, cross-over, comparison study. ...
Torricelli Andre A M AA Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio; University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, - - 2014
Studies suggest that standard corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) is a safe and effective treatment to stiffen the cornea for keratoconus and other ectatic corneal disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the biomechanical effects of transepithelial benzalkonium chloride-EDTA (BAC-EDTA) riboflavin-UVA crosslinking to standard epithelium-off riboflavin-UVA crosslinking in ...
Caballero A A Department of Microbiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center , Jackson, Mississippi , USA - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of a high-affinity human monoclonal antibody Fab fragment to Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin (LTM14 Fab) as therapy for S. aureus keratitis. Methods: A single topical drop of the LTM14 Fab antibody to alpha-toxin alone, or in 0.006% benzalkonium chloride (BAK), was applied every 30 min to ...
Sezgin Akçay Betül İlkay BI 1 Umraniye Research and Training Hospital , Eye Clinic, İstanbul, Turkey - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: To compare the toxicity effect of polyquaternium (PQ) and benzalkonium chloride (BAK) preservation of travoprost on the ocular surface. Methods: This prospective study included 44 eyes of 44 patients with newly diagnosed glaucoma. Twenty-two patients used PQ-preserved travoprost (PQ group) and 22 patients used BAK-preserved travoprost (BAK group). ...
Huang Chaoyang - - 2014
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes serious HCMV-related diseases in immunocompromised people. Vaccination is the most effective measure to control infection with the pathogen, yet no vaccine has been licensed till now. We performed a head-to-head comparison of the protective abilities of multiple DNA vaccines in murine model of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) ...
Sanford Mark M Adis, 41 Centorian Drive, Private Bag 65901, Mairangi Bay, North Shore, 0754, Auckland, New Zealand, - - 2014
Latanoprost is an ester prodrug prostaglandin F2α analogue that is a selective agonist of endogenous prostanoid FP receptors and that reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) by increasing the uveoscleral outflow of aqueous humour. Preservative-free (PF) latanoprost [Monoprost(®)] is a new formulation of latanoprost that is approved for use in the EU ...
Kim Bryan Y BY University of Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary, Chicago, - - 2014
To describe the clinical features and management strategies in patients whose limbal stem cell (LSC) disease reversed with medical therapy. Retrospective case series. Twenty-two eyes of 15 patients seen at 3 tertiary referral centers between 2007 and 2011 with 3 months or more of follow-up. Medical records of patients with ...
Wang Shaojuan S Department of Reproductive Medical Center, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430060, P.R. China ; Department of Gynecology, Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518172, P.R. - - 2014
Pregnancy is associated with complex immunoreactions. In the present study, the effect of SB-273005, an antagonist of αvβ3 integrin, on the alterations of T helper (Th) cells and their derived cytokines that occur during pregnancy was investigated in mice. Five non-pregnant mice were used as a negative control. Mice were ...
Oğuz Merve M Erciyes University Engineering Faculty Environmental Engineering Department, 38039 Kayseri, Turkey. Electronic address: - - 2014
In this study, environmental risks of selected pharmaceuticals were investigated to assess potential hazards. Ciprofloxacin, Clarithromycin, Cefuroxime axetil, antibiotics, Benzalkoniuman antiseptic, Paracetamol, an analgesic, and Naproxen, an anti-inflammatory, were selected due to their high rate of usage in Turkey. Ciprofloxacin was found to have the highest risk due to its ...
Sunada Atsuko A Department of Medical Technology, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka, Japan; Department of Biomedical Informatics, Division of Health Sciences, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
To evaluate the effectiveness of topical agents for the treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Laboratory research. Fifty-six Acanthamoeba isolates from 56 patients with clinically proven AK were studied. The effectiveness of 7 agents against Acanthamoeba cysts was determined in vitro. The agents were 1.0% povidone-iodine, 0.05% benzalkonium chloride (BZC), 0.02% chlorhexidine ...
Reichel Mirja - - 2014
Worldwide, the emergence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria is a clinical problem. Surface disinfectant cleaners (SDCs) that are effective against these bacteria are needed for use in high risk areas around patients and on multi-touch surfaces. We determined the efficacy of several SDCs against clinically relevant bacterial species with and without ...
Ghasemzadeh-Moghaddam Hamed H 1 Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia , Serdang, Malaysia - - 2014
The prevalence and spread of mupirocin and antiseptic resistance among colonizing and infectious Staphylococcus aureus were determined. S. aureus isolated from anterior nares and infection sites of patients hospitalized in the largest tertiary care referral hospital in Malaysia was investigated for mupirocin and antiseptic susceptibility testing, and for PCR detection ...
Labbé Antoine A Department of Ophthalmology, Quinze-Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, Paris and Ambroise Paré Hospital , AP-HP, Boulogne-Billancourt , France - - 2014
Abstract Objective: To analyze the effect of preserved antiglaucoma eye drops on the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) in conjunctival epithelial cells. Methods: A total of 18 patients treated for primary open-angle glaucoma with benzalkonium chloride (BAK) preserved eye drops and eight age-matched controls were included in ...
Oguz Ahmet Serra S Medipol University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Prosthodontics , - - 2014
Abstract Objective. The clinical survival rates of the adhesive restorations are limited due to the deterioration of resin-dentin bonds over time, partly due to the endogenous enzymatic activity of dentin. Recently, benzalkonium chloride (BAC) has been shown to effectively inhibit endogenous protease activity of dentin. This study evaluated the effect ...
Saleh Sarah S SS Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, October University for Modern Sciences and Arts (MSA), 11787 6th October City, Egypt. Electronic address: - - 2014
This work represents a comparative study of a novel progressive spectrophotometric resolution technique namely, amplitude center method (ACM), versus the well-established successive spectrophotometric resolution techniques namely; successive derivative subtraction (SDS); successive derivative of ratio spectra (SDR) and mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR). All the proposed spectrophotometric techniques consist of ...
Roberti Gloria G Istituto di Ricerca e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Fondazione GB Bietti, Via Livenza 3, 00198, Rome, - - 2014
Purpose: To study the neuroprotective effect of topical citicoline . Materials and Methods: Experimental phase to evaluate the ability of citicoline eye drops to reach the vitreous and the retina: The right eyes of 5 mice CD1 were treated with two drops per day for three days of citicoline 1% ...
Araújo Paula A PA a LEPABE, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering , University of Porto , Porto , - - 2014
The penetration ability of 12 antimicrobial agents, including antibiotics and biocides, was determined against biofilms of B. cereus and P. fluorescens using a colony biofilm assay. The surfactants benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), and the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and streptomycin were of interest due to their distinct activities. ...
Riva Ivano I *Centre for the Study of Glaucoma, University of Brescia, Brescia ‡Laboratory of Clinical Research, IRCCS, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milano ∥DSCMT, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy †Ophthalmology Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina §Glaucoma Unit, 1st University Department of Ophthalmology, AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki, - - 2014
The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) efficacy of travoprost monotherapy in primary open-angle glaucoma patients. A total of 36 previously untreated primary open-angle glaucoma patients were enrolled in this 5-year study. Patients underwent an untreated 24-hour IOP evaluation. Subsequently all patients were ...
McCanna David Joseph DJ School of Optometry and Vision Science, Centre for Contact Lens Research, University of Waterloo , Waterloo, Ontario , Canada - - 2014
Abstract Macrophages play an important role in the elimination of infections, the removal of debris and in tissue repair after infection and trauma. In vitro models that assess ocular biomaterials for toxicity typically focus on the effects of these materials on epithelial or fibroblast cells. This investigation evaluated known ocular ...
Ebrahimi Azizollah A School of Veterinary Science, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, IR - - 2014
To study chlorhexidine digluconate disinfectant effects on planktonic growth and biofilm formation in some bacterial field isolates from animals. The current study investigated chlorhexidine digluconate effects on planktonic growth and biofilm formation in some field isolates of veterinary bacterial pathogens. Forty clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella serotypes, Staphylococcus. aureus ...
Zhang Zhen Z Eye Institute of Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361102, - - 2014
Purpose. To investigate the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of topical doxycycline in a benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-induced mouse dry eye model. Methods. Eye drops containing 0.025%, 0.1% doxycycline or solvent were administered to a BAC-induced dry eye model four times daily. The clinical evaluations including tear break-up time (BUT), fluorescein ...
Lee Sangmi S Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, - - 2014
Listeria monocytogenes can cause severe foodborne disease (listeriosis). Numerous outbreaks have involved three serotype 4b epidemic clones (ECs): ECI, ECII and ECIa. However, little is known about the population structure of L. monocytogenes serotype 4b from sporadic listeriosis in the United States, even though most cases of human listeriosis are ...
Mahzounieh Mohammadreza M Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, IR - - 2014
Quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), which contain benzalkonium chloride as the most widely used agent, are employed as wound and skin antiseptics, as well as disinfectants in hospitals. The resistance mechanism to disinfectants is usually determine by genes which are related to resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds, namely, qacE, qacΔE1, qacΔE1 ...
Park Seong Bin SB Lab. of aquatic animal Diseases, Research Institute of Life Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701, South - - 2014
The olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, is an economically important food fish in Japan and Korea. Scuticociliatosis is a major parasitic disease, and fatal infection with scuticociliates, or mixed infections with scuticociliates and other pathogenic agents (e.g., Vibrio spp.) cause severe mortalities in farmed olive flounders. To date, however, effective chemotherapeutic ...
Passariello Claudio C Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, - - 2014
This work investigated the antibacterial activity of 14 bonding agents to predict their ability to inhibit white-spot development during orthodontic treatment. Standardized, sterilized disks of each material were continuously rinsed (for up to 180 d) in a flow of sterile saline. At predetermined time points, the residual ability of each material ...
Huang Caihong C Eye Institute of Xiamen University, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Xiamen 361102, - - 2014
Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmic preparations.So far large bodies of clinical and experimental studies have shown that use of topical drugs containing BAC can induce a series of ocular surface diseases, such as apoptosis.However, recently, some clinical studies have shown that ocular toxicity in ...
Elkassas Dina Wafik DW Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Misr International University, Cairo, - - 2014
This study was carried out to examine the effect of application of four different disinfecting agents on the micro-shear bond strength (μ-SBS) of an etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems. One hundred flat dentin surfaces of human molars were produced by wet grinding the buccal surfaces. Specimens were randomly assigned to ...
Hao Xiaoxia - - 2014
Reducing airborne microorganisms may potentially improve the environment in layer breeding houses. The effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW; pH 5.29-6.30) in reducing airborne microorganisms was investigated in a commercial layer house in northern China. The building had a tunnel-ventilation system, with an evaporative cooling. The experimental area was ...
Nemoto Manabu M Epizootic Research Center, Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing - - 2014
Although many disinfectants are commercially available in the veterinary field, information on the virucidal effects of disinfectants against equine group A rotavirus (RVA) is limited. We evaluated the performance of commercially available disinfectants against equine RVA. Chlorine- and iodine-based disinfectants showed virucidal effects, but these were reduced by the presence ...
Hsiao Meng-Hsuan MH Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hseuh Road, Hsinchu City, Taiwan 300, - - 2014
Hydrogels composed of assembled colloids is a material class that currently receives much interest and shows great promise for use in biomedical applications. This emerging material class presents unique properties derived from the combination of nano-sized domains in the form of colloidal particles with a continuous gel network and an ...
Ortiz Sagrario S 1 National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology (INIA) , Madrid, Spain - - 2014
Abstract This study aimed to investigate whether Listeria monocytogenes strains with resistance to a commonly used biocide display any cross-resistance to antibiotics. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), 29 different PFGE types were previously identified in an Iberian pig abattoir and processing plant. Only three PFGE types were resistant to benzalkonium ...
Goldberg Ivan I Department of Ophthalmology, University of Sydney, Sydney Eye Hospital, Sydney, - - 2014
To compare the efficacy and safety of single-dose bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% preservative-free (PF) ophthalmic solution with bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. In this multicentre, randomised, parallel-group study, patients were randomised to bimatoprost/timolol PF or bimatoprost/timolol once daily in the morning for 12 ...
Abe Ricardo Yuji RY Department of Ophthalmology, University of Campinas , Campinas, Brazil - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on the blood-aqueous (BAB) and blood-retinal barriers (BRB) of pseudophakic eyes. Methods: Prospective, randomized, investigator-masked, comparative study. Patients were randomly assigned to preservative-free artificial tears or BAK-preserved artificial tears. One drop of artificial tears was instilled 4 times a day ...
Ciralsky Jessica B JB Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York -Presbyterian , New York, NY , - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: To evaluate continuous wear of a fluid-ventilated, gas-permeable scleral PROSE device using a standardized protocol as treatment for refractory persistent corneal epithelial defects in patients with severe ocular surface disease. Methods: Retrospective review of eight eyes of seven consecutive patients with persistent epithelial defects refractory to traditional therapies. ...
Kinoshita Jun-Ichiro J Department of Esthetic Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo, - - 2014
Bleaching of traumatized discolored teeth is considered an important issue in esthetic dentistry. Various methods have been introduced for bleaching, some of which may have adverse effects on soft or hard tissues of the tooth. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of KTP laser bleaching on ...
Song Jong Suk JS Department of Ophthalmology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, - - 2014
To assess current practice patterns for dry eye patients in South Korea and to evaluate the preference according to the ages and clinic types of physicians. Dry eye patients (n = 1,612) were enrolled in this multicenter cross-sectional, observational study. The severity level of dry eye patients was classified based ...
Marsovszky László L Department of Ophthalmology, Semmelweis University Budapest, Mária u. 39, 1085, Budapest, Hungary, - - 2014
The recently developed confocal cornea microscopy offers the opportunity to examine pathologies of the cornea and to gain insight into the activity of innate immunity. We aimed to investigate the corneal epithelial and Langerhans cell (LC) densities along with dry eye parameters in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) subjects, treated with ...
Onizuka Naoko N *Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; and †Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Nagasaki University Hospital of Medicine and Dentistry, Nagasaki, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to examine the ophthalmic additives responsible for modulating acute corneal epithelial toxicity induced by benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and investigate the ability of polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil 40 (HCO-40) and polysorbate 80 (PS-80) to reduce the corneal toxicity and antimicrobial effects of BAC. Cytotoxicity of ...
Sinobad Tamara - - 2014
Dimensional stability and accuracy of an impression after chemical disinfection by immersion in disinfectants are crucial for the accuracy of final prosthetic restorations. The aim of this study was to assess the deformation of addition and condensation silicone impressions after disinfection in antimicrobial solutions. A total of 120 impressions were ...
He Guixin G University of Massachusetts - - 2014
We isolated a total of 653 strains from 64 community environmental samples in Massachusetts, United States (US). Among these isolates, 9.65% (63 strains) were benzalkonium chloride (BC) resistant Staphylococci. Also, all BC resistant strains were collected from surfaces upon which antibacterial wipes or antibacterial sprays containing 0.02% to 0.12% BC ...
Kumagami Takeshi T 1 Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University , Nagasaki, Japan - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: The benzalkonium chloride (BAK) content of tafluprost ophthalmic solution (Tapros(®): tafluprost) has been reduced to balance corneal safety and preservative effectiveness (old formulation: 0.01%; new formulation: 0.001%). However, no reports have been published on its clinical effect. Therefore, we conducted a clinical research study to compare the safety ...
Jahid Iqbal Kabir IK 1 School of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University , Kyunggido, South Korea - - 2014
Abstract The present article focuses on the inactivation kinetics of various disinfectants including ethanol, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and benzalkonium chloride against Aeromonas hydrophila biofilms and planktonic cells. Efficacy was determined by viable plate count and compared using a modified Weibull model. The removal of the biofilms matrix ...
Iester Michele M Laboratorio clinico anatomo-funzionale per la diagnosi e il trattamento del glaucoma e della malattie neurooftalmologiche, Clinica Oculistica, DiNOGMI, University of Genoa, Genoa, - - 2014
Aim: To investigate and compare the effects of topical benzalkonium chloride-preserved prostaglandins (PGAs) on the ocular surface in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma before and after 3 months of treatment with additional 0.5% preservative-free tamarind seed polysaccharide single-dose eyedrops (TSP®, Oftagen, Pisa, Italy). Methods: This was a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter ...
Lotfy Hayam Mahmoud HM Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Aini Street, 11562 Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address: - - 2014
Two smart and novel spectrophotometric methods namely; absorbance subtraction (AS) and amplitude modulation (AM) were developed and validated for the determination of a binary mixture of timolol maleate (TIM) and dorzolamide hydrochloride (DOR) in presence of benzalkonium chloride without prior separation, using unified regression equation. Additionally, simple, specific, accurate and ...
Lotfy Hayam M HM Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr-El Aini Street, 11562 Cairo, - - 2014
This work represents the application of the isosbestic points present in different absorption spectra. Three novel spectrophotometric methods were developed, the first method is the absorption subtraction method (AS) utilizing the isosbestic point in zero-order absorption spectra; the second method is the amplitude modulation method (AM) utilizing the isosbestic point ...
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