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Ciancio Sebastian G - - 2007
With an increasing number of toothpastes to choose from, recommending an appropriate dentifrice for patients can be difficult. This article reviews a unique triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice that delivers significant oral health benefits when compared with conventional fluoride dentifrices. Randomized, double-blind studies that compared a triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice with a regular fluoride dentifrice ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 435
Qian L - - 2008
The preparation of a cationic beta-cyclodextrin polymer (CPbetaCD) and its complexes with butylparaben and triclosan were reported in this paper. FT-IR and 2D 1H-1H gCOSY NMR spectra confirmed that the antibiotics could be included inside of the lipophilic cavities of CPbetaCD. The formation of complexation of CPbetaCD with the antibiotics ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 435
Lores Marta - - 2005
Photodegradation is a possible way to eliminate organic pollutants from the environment but, at the same time, can be a source of toxic byproducts. The photochemical conversion of triclosan, a common pollutant in continental waters, into dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (DCDD) has been confirmed in our preliminary experiments employing photo-SPME (photo-solid-phase microextraction) using ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 435
Pidugu Lakshmi Swarnamukhi - - 2004
Bacteria synthesize fatty acids in a dissociated type pathway different from that in humans. Enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase, which catalyzes the final step of fatty acid elongation, has been validated as a potential anti-microbial drug target. Triclosan is known to inhibit this enzyme effectively. Precise characterization of the mode ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 435
Bergstrom Kendra Gail - - 2014
In December of 2013 the Food and Drug Administration announced it would look further into the safety and efficacy of the biocide triclosan and requested further safety data as part of a new review with the Environmental Protection Agency. The use of triclosan has increased exponentially since its introduction in ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 434
Newbrun E - - 1994
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 433
Al-Doori Z - - 2003
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 433
Levin Cheryl - - 2007
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 433
Sanchez Patricia - - 2005
The possibility that triclosan selects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia mutants overexpressing the multidrug resistance pump SmeDEF is analyzed. Five out of 12 triclosan-selected mutants were less susceptible to antibiotics than the wild-type strain and overproduced SmeDEF. Results are discussed in relation to current debates on the potential selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria by ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 433
Passos Vanara Florêncio - - 2010
To evaluate in situ the protective effect of sodium fluoride (NaF)/triclosan/copolymer dentifrice compared with monofluorphosphate (MFP) dentifrice on eroded enamel. The specimens were subjected to erosion with cola soft drink for 60 seconds, four times a day, for 5 days, followed by treatment with the slurry of nonfluoridated, NaF (1450 ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 432
Sharma Shilpi - - 2003
The upsurge of multiple-drug-resistant microbes warrants the development and/or use of effective antibiotics. Triclosan, though used in cosmetic and dermatological preparations for several decades, has not been used as a systemic antibacterial agent due to problems of drug administration. Here we report the striking efficacy of triclosan in a mouse ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 432
Tung F F - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the antimicrobial action of a urea-based handwash lotion with triclosan with a lipid-depleting detergent-based handwash product with 4% chlorhexidine gluconate. The zones of inhibition produced by the two handwash lotions and the one produced by the positive control were similar ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 432
DeVizio William - - 2004
This paper provides an overview and summary of the data that demonstrate the effectiveness of a dentifrice containing triclosan/copolymer/fluoride in significantly reducing plaque, calculus, gingivitis, and the onset and progression of periodontitis. The caries-preventive benefit of the triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice was at least as good as that of a fluoride dentifrice. ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 432
Buth Jeffrey M - - 2011
Triclosan, a common antimicrobial agent, may react during the disinfection of wastewater with free chlorine to form three chlorinated triclosan derivatives (CTDs). This is of concern because the CTDs may be photochemically transformed to tri- and tetra-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins when discharged into natural waters. In this study, wastewater influent, secondary (pre-disinfection) ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 431
Ho Kay T - - 2012
Triclosan (5-chloro-2-[2,4-dichlorophenoxy]phenol) is a relatively new, commonly used antimicrobial compound found in many personal care products. Triclosan is toxic to marine organisms at the micrograms per liter level, can photodegrade to a dioxin, can accumulate in humans, and has been found to be stable in marine sediments for over 30 ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 431
Peter S - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To compare the reduction of plaque and gingivitis from the following three toothpaste formulations containing: 0.3% Triclosan, 1,000ppm fluoride and 0.13% calcium glycerophosphate in a natural calcium carbonate base (a new paste); 0.2% Triclosan and 1,000ppm fluoride in a precipitated calcium carbonate base; 0.3% Triclosan, 1,000ppm fluoride and Gantrez ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 431
Barros Silvana P SP School of Dentistry, Center for Oral and Systemic Diseases, North Carolina Oral Health Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27709, USA. - - 2010
We sought to determine whether triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenylether), an extensively used anti-plaque agent with broad-spectrum anti-microbial activity, with reported anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1 (IL-1)beta, could also more broadly suppress multiple inflammatory gene pathways responsible for the pathogenesis of gingivitis and periodontitis. As an exploratory study, ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 431
Jenkins S - - 1994
The optimum dose of chlorhexidine delivered by mouthrinse, which balances efficacy against local side-effects, is generally considered to be in the region of 20 mg 2 x daily. Unfortunately, there have been few dose-response studies for chlorhexidine mouthrinses and for these, only limited details are published. The aims of this ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 431
Elwood Chelsea N - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent commonly used in consumer and medical products that inhibits bacterial fatty acid synthesis. In addition to its bactericidal effects, sublethal concentrations of triclosan reduce local inflammation, inhibit the growth of bacterial uropathogens, induce membrane stress, and inhibit P-fimbrial expression in uropathogenic Escherichia ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 430
Freundlich Joel S - - 2009
Triclosan has been previously shown to inhibit InhA, an essential enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase involved in mycolic acid biosynthesis, the inhibition of which leads to the lysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Using a structure-based drug design approach, a series of 5-substituted triclosan derivatives was developed. Two groups of derivatives with ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 429
Skaare A B - - 1997
The anti-inflammatory properties of triclosan have been revealed in several recent studies, including an effect on histamine-induced inflammation. In other studies, the nature of the solvent has been shown to be of importance for the plaque inhibiting as well as the antibacterial potential of triclosan. This study was aimed at ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 429
Kanchanakamol U - - 1995
A 6-month, single-blind and parallel clinical study was conducted to compare the effects of dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan and 2.0% of copolymer (methoxyethylene and maleic acid) with a customary oral hygiene procedure on supragingival plaque formation and gingivitis. The 124 subjects were stratified into two balanced groups on the basis ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 427
Latch Douglas E - - 2005
The photochemical fate of the antimicrobial agent triclosan is presented. Experiments performed in both natural and buffered deionized water show that triclosan rapidly photodegrades by direct photolysis (t(1/2) = 5 h, pH 8, noon summer sunlight, 45 degrees N latitude). Both 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) are produced. The 2,8-DCDD ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 427
Jenkins S - - 1991
Toothpastes have been shown to exert some plaque inhibitory effects probably due to the action of detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). Recently the antimicrobial, triclosan, has been added to experimental and commercial toothpaste products to enhance activity against plaque. There is, however, little information as to the plaque ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 427
Deasy M J - - 1991
A total of one hundred twenty-one (121) adult male and female subjects completed a 6-month, double-blind clinical study comparing the effect on supragingival plaque formation and gingivitis of a dentifrice containing 0.3% Triclosan and 2.0% of a copolymer of methoxyethylene and maleic acid to a placebo dentifrice. Both the Triclosan/copolymer ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 427
Rao Satish P Ramachandra - - 2003
In order that malaria be successfully contained, it is important that one has a clear understanding of the normal physiology and biochemistry of the parasite essential to its survival in its human host. Until very recently, the conventional approaches to antimalarial chemotherapy have consistently been plagued with the uncanny ability ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 427
Crawford Brent R - - 2012
Triclosan is an antimicrobial additive in many personal care and household products, and evidence indicates that it can be estrogenic. As estrogen elevations can disrupt blastocyst implantation, we examined the influence of triclosan on implantation in inseminated mice. Doses of 18 and 27mg/animal/day (about 523 and 785mg/kg/day) on gestational days ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 427
Rossi Andiara De AD Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, - - 2014
The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of toothpastes containing natural extracts, chlorhexidine or triclosan. The effectiveness of toothpastes containing natural extracts (Parodontax(r)), 0.12% chlorhexidine (Cariax(r)), 0.3% triclosan (Sanogil(r)) or fluoride (Sorriso(r), control) was evaluated against yeasts, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using the disk ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 425
Buhl Timo T Clinics of Dermatology and Allergology, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany; Departments of Dermatology and Surgery, University of California, San Francisco. Electronic address: - - 2014
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 425
McMurry L M - - 1998
Triclosan (Irgasan) is a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent used in handsoaps, toothpastes, fabrics, and plastics. It inhibits lipid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli, probably by action upon enoyl reductase (FabI) (McMurry, L.M., Oethinger, M. and Levy, S.B. (1988) Nature 394, 531-532). We report here that overexpression of the multidrug efflux pump ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 425
Fairbrother K J - - 1997
Three triclosan-containing "multi-benefit" dentifrices were compared for clinical efficacy in reducing supragingival calculus formation following a dental prophylaxis. A total of 544 subjects completed a double-blind parallel-group clinical study using the Volpe-Manhold Index (VMI) to record severity and occurrence of supragingival calculus. The study design included a pre-test period where ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 424
Palomo F - - 1989
One hundred eighteen male and female adult subjects were entered into a 14-week, double-blind clinical study to compare the effect of a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan and 2% of a copolymer of methoxyethylene and maleic acid on plaque formation and gingivitis. The subjects were stratified into two balanced groups according ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 423
Ellison Matthew L - - 2007
Pasteurella multocida exhibits nonspecific susceptibility to nonpolar antimicrobial agents such as triclosan, despite possessing an ultrastructurally typical gram-negative cell envelope. Capsulated and noncapsulated cell surface variants were examined to investigate the role outer membrane permeability plays in triclosan susceptibility. Test strains were unable to initiate growth in the presence of ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 423
Hall P J - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To measure the levels of zinc and Triclosan present in plaque 12 hours post-brushing and following two weeks home use of a toothpaste formulation containing 2% zinc citrate and 0.3% Triclosan. To measure the levels of zinc and Triclosan in plaque following two weeks home use of the test ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 423
Baert J H - - 1997
Triclosan is known to reduce the untoward side effects of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). The aim of the present study was to determine whether triclosan can inhibit SLS-induced changes in expression of cytokeratin (CK) genes in hamster cheek pouch epithelium. With a hybridohistochemical technique, using specific human cRNA probes, hamster ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 423
Saxton C A - - 1993
The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of Triclosan dentifrices to delay the development of gingivitis during a 21-day period without toothbrushing. Test pastes contained 0.3 per cent Triclosan; seven also contained 0.75 per cent zinc citrate; one other contained 2 per cent Gantrez. Plaque and gingivitis ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 423
Panagakos Fotinos S - - 2005
Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, marketed for use in oral products. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. PVM/MA is the non-proprietary designation for a polyvinylmethyl ether maleic acid copolymer. It has been demonstrated that there is a greater uptake of triclosan to enamel and buccal epithelial ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 423
Canosa P - - 2005
The degradation of 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-5-chlorophenol (triclosan) in chlorinated water samples was investigated. Sensitive determination of the parent compound and its transformation products was achieved by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection after sample concentration, using a solid-phase extraction sorbent and silylation of the target compounds. Experiments were accomplished using ultrapure water ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 423
Williams Gareth J - - 2008
The crystalline bacterial biofilms that encrust Foley catheters compromise the care of many elderly and disabled patients. The aim of this study was to examine whether the biocide triclosan can prevent encrustation by the mixed flora of uropathogens that commonly infect patients undergoing long-term catheterization. Models of the catheterized bladder ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 423
Mustafa M - - 1998
The effect of the dentifrice ingredient triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxyldiphenyl ether) on the production of interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 was studied in human gingival fibroblasts challenged with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in vitro. When gingival fibroblasts were treated simultaneously with triclosan (0.25, 0.5 microg/ml) and TNFalpha (10 ng/ml), the stimulatory effect ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 423
Axelstad Marta - - 2013
Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T4) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300mg triclosan/kgbw/day throughout gestation and lactation. Total T4 serum levels were measured ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 423
van Loveren C - - 2000
Triclosan has been incorporated into toothpaste to enhance inhibitory effects on bacterial metabolism in dental plaque. Many studies have confirmed these effects by showing a reduction of accumulation of dental plaque, gingivitis and calculus. However, there is no evidence for triclosan having an inhibitory effect on the dental plaque-induced demineralization ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 423
Cadieux Peter A - - 2006
PURPOSE: Infection and encrustation remain major limitations of ureteral stent use and to our knowledge no device has completely overcome these obstacles to date. Triclosan is a biocide currently used in a plethora of consumer and medical products that has recently been loaded into a ureteral stent. Using a rabbit ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 423
Garcia-Godoy F - - 1990
A total of 108 adult male and female subjects completed a 7-month, double-blind clinical study designed to compare the effect of a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan and 2% of a copolymer of methoxyethylene and maleic acid on plaque formation and gingivitis, as compared to a placebo dentifrice. The subjects were ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 423
Jenkins S - - 1991
A number of commonly used toothpaste ingredients, such as detergents, possess not inconsiderable antimicrobial activity. Additionally, specific ingredients including triclosan are now added to toothpastes to enhance such activity and to improve plaque inhibition. To date, there have been few studies of the antimicrobial properties in vivo of individual toothpaste ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 423
Wammer Kristine H - - 2006
Sulfa drugs and triclosan represent two classes of antibacterials that have been found in natural waters and for which photodegradation is anticipated to be a significant loss process. Parent antibacterial compounds and the products of photolysis reactions were compared for three sulfa drugs and triclosan to determine the extent to ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 422
Kockisch Sandra - - 2005
The aim of this study was to develop mucoadhesive microspheres that can be utilised for the controlled release of triclosan in oral-care formulations, specifically dental pastes. Using a double-emulsion solvent evaporation technique, triclosan was incorporated into microspheres that were prepared from Gantreztrade mark MS-955, Carbopol 974P, polycarbophil or chitosan and ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 422
Ciniglia Claudia - - 2005
The toxic effects of Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) on morphology and sexual and asexual reproduction of C. ehrenbergii were examined. In addition, the genotoxic effects of Triclosan were evaluated on the same alga using the microgel electrophoresis test, also-called Comet assay. Increasing Triclosan concentrations in the range 0.125-5 mg L(-1) did ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 422
Waaler S M - - 1994
The effect of triclosan on plaque inhibition was studied with various solvents. Eight subjects used the solutions as mouthwashes twice daily for 4 days while refraining from any other form of oral hygiene. Bacteriologic tests were also done with the same solutions. The study showed that the nature of the ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 422
Leiker Thomas J - - 2009
Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 422
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