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Cohendy R - - 1994
The respiratory resistive properties of the normal human respiratory system are volume-dependent. The overall flow resistance (Rmax,rs) can be partitioned into airway resistance (Raw) and the additional resistance (delta Rrs) which may result from the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system, from inequality of time constants (pendelluft), or from both. ...
Ebert T J - - 1994
The effects of continuous infusions of propofol on baroreceptor reflex regulation of cardiac rate and peripheral sympathetic nerve activity were evaluated in seven healthy, normotensive, young (19-26 yr), male volunteers. Heart rate, radial artery pressure, and continuous recordings of efferent sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow (from the peroneal nerve) were monitored. Baroreceptor ...
Wicks T C - - 1994
Rocuronium is a new nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug. Its onset of action is comparable to that of succinylcholine, with good-to-excellent intubating conditions possible 1 minute after doses two times the ED95 (600 micrograms/kg). The ED95 of rocuronium is essentially the same for children as for adults. Its duration of action ...
Smith I - - 1994
We compared the effectiveness of atropine, glycopyrrolate, and a transesophageal atrial pacing (TAP) stethoscope for treating intraoperative bradycardia in 64 unpremedicated patients receiving a standardized sufentanil/N2O/vecuronium anesthetic. Patients were allocated randomly to receive either atropine, 5 micrograms/kg (Group 1), glycopyrrolate, 2.5 micrograms/kg (Group 2), or transesophageal atrial pacing (Group 3) ...
Luttropp H H - - 1994
Xenon is a more potent anesthetic than nitrous oxide, and give more profound analgesia. This investigation was performed to assess the potential of xenon for becoming an anesthetic inspite of its high manufacturing cost. Seven ASA I-II patients undergoing cholecystectomy (n = 4), hernia repair (n = 2), or mammoplasty ...
Adams H A - - 1994
Clinically-used ketamine is a racemic mixture of two isomers, S-(+)- and R-(-)-ketamine. Previous investigations showed the anaesthetic potency of S(+)-ketamine to be three times higher than that of R-(-)-ketamine. It was the aim of this study to compare the effects of S-(+)-ketamine and racemic ketamine on endocrine and cardiovascular parameters, ...
Batra R K - - 1994
We report a series of 13 patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome anaesthetised on 17 occasions. Anaesthesia management varied depending on the clinical manifestations which ranged from localized, superficial skin lesions to extensive systemic involvement. These patients tolerate anaesthesia well but anaesthetic management includes evaluation for associated anomalies. Difficulty with intubation may ...
Semple P - - 1994
We compared the potency of vecuronium when given to similar patients in Brisbane, Australia, and Cardiff, United Kingdom. Forty patients in each centre were anaesthetized using the same technique with propofol, fentanyl, nitrous oxide and vecuronium either 20 or 30 micrograms kg-1 by random allocation. Neuromuscular block was measured with ...
Aziz L - - 1994
We investigated the influence of CO2-induced acid-base changes on the potencies of the monoquaternary relaxants (rocuronium, vecuronium, and d-tubocurarine) and bisquaternary relaxants (pancuronium, pipecuronium, and metocurine), and on the antagonism of their neuromuscular block by neostigmine. Phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations of rats were used. The pH changes were induced by changing ...
Shapiro M H - - 1994
The analgesic effect of intramuscular ketorolac was assessed by double blind study in forty women presenting for day-case laparoscopic sterilisation. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either ketorolac 30 mg or saline by intramuscular injection immediately following induction of general anaesthesia. There was no statistically significant difference between the ...
Heier T - - 1994
The effect of total body cooling on force of contraction of the adductor pollicis was determined during a constant rate infusion of vecuronium. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental and maintained with isoflurane/nitrous oxide in eight volunteers (study group) and seven surgical patients (control group). After train-of-four (TOF) stimulation of the ...
Bragg P - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Although the respiratory muscles (the diaphragm and the laryngeal adductors) recover from paralysis more rapidly than does the adductor pollicis, patients can develop complete paralysis of the respiratory muscles, but not of the adductor pollicis, after bolus administration of vecuronium. The authors used a pharmacodynamic model not requiring muscle ...
Lischke V - - 1994
During induction of anesthesia in 60 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), we measured the QT-interval (QTI) in the ECG, heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Based on the HR, we corrected the QT-interval (QTcI). Prior to induction, six patients (10%) already had abnormal prolongation of QTcI ...
Gronert B J - - 1994
Neuromuscular blocking drugs are valuable adjuncts to the practice of pediatrics. Monitoring of drug effects is technically more difficult in the younger patient. Nevertheless, careful observation of drug effects will improve the usefulness of NMB and safeguard the patient from prolonged weakness. Although there are differences in neuromuscular function with ...
Braga M F - - 1994
In anaesthetized cats, we have confirmed that previously injected suxamethonium potentiates non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs whereas, when injected during the block, suxamethonium antagonizes the paralysis. We have attempted to explain these interactions by studying the effects of suxamethonium on extracellularly recorded nerve ending waveforms that correspond to the ionic currents ...
Mikaelian I - - 1994
The mydriatic effect of 3 curare-like neuromuscular blocking agents was tested in European kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) after topical application. Alcuronium chloride (5 mg/ml) was found to be effective at a dose of 1 drop (20 drops = 1 ml) administered twice at a 15-minute interval. Mydriasis was achieved at t ...
Bissinger U - - 1994
An 81-year-old patient had prolonged competitive neuromuscular blockade with train-of-four ratios of 0.1 and 0.5, respectively, after two successive anaesthesia procedures (enflurane-N2O/O2; vecuronium-succinylcholine-sequence) for transurethral prostate resection. Although antagonism with neostigmine was promptly successful after the first, 65-min period of anaesthesia (1.5 mg vecuronium for precurarization, 100 mg succinylcholine for ...
Latson T W - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Autonomic reflex dysfunction in patients with diabetes is associated with an increased incidence of hypotension after induction of anesthesia. Whether this finding can be extrapolated to patients with autonomic dysfunction from other causes (e.g., advanced age, hypertension, altered ventricular function) has not been established. METHODS: The authors investigated whether ...
Tanaka S - - 1994
A 51 year-old female with spinocerebrellar degeneration was anesthetized with O2-N2O-isoflurane for abdominal total hysterectomy. After monitoring of both orbicularis oculi and adductor pollicis twitches in the response to train-of-four stimulation of the facial and ulnar nerves had been prepared, vecuronium was administered as a bolus. The time from vecuronium ...
Pandit S K - - 1994
General anesthesia is the most common form of anesthetic management for ambulatory surgery. Patients, in general, prefer general anesthesia because it is less anxiety provoking. During the last decade, the availability of several short-acting agents with high clearance has made general anesthetic techniques much safer and more predictable for outpatients. ...
Bevan D R - - 1994
Four neuromuscular blocking drugs, doxacurium, mivacurium, pipecuronium, and rocuronium have been or are about to be introduced into clinical practice. The purpose of this MiniReview is to describe their pharmacology, to consider their place in clinical anaesthetic practice, and to examine whether the needs of the clinician have been met. ...
Waldvogel H H - - 1994
End-expiratory capnometrical and capnographical data correspond well with blood carbon dioxide content. Carbon dioxide insufflation for laparoscopy results in a big increase in CO2 uptake as well as in respiratory deterioration due to positioning and increased intra-abdominal pressure. We observed 226 female patients during laparoscopy under general anaesthesia (midazolam-alfentanil-atracurium or ...
Barbone G - - 1994
For monitoring of vecuronium profound neuromuscular blockade post-tetanic count (PTC) following tetanic stimulation at frequency of 50 and 100 Hz was employed in 25 ASA I-II patients submitted to elective surgery, to evaluate the differences between the two patterns of stimulation and the possible clinical utility of the latter pattern ...
Mahisekar U L - - 1994
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the potential clinical significance of admixtures of thiopental sodium and acidic drugs, which are used during induction of general anesthesia and can cause the formation of particles of thiopental. DESIGN: Using an infusion setup similar to that used for a rapid-sequence induction of general anesthesia, injection ...
Cortiñas J - - 1994
Nitschmann P - - 1994
In a double-blind study, cardiovascular parameters (cardiac output, heart rate, systolic and diastolic arterial pressure, pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances) were measured invasively in two groups of patients receiving 3 x ED90 of rocuronium or vecuronium. Measurements were made at 2, 5 and 7 min after administration and 10 and ...
Iwasaki H - - 1994
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the sensitivity to vecuronium in the cricothyroid (CT) and posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscles of the larynx and the adductor pollicis muscles. DESIGN: Prospective, nonrandomized study. SETTING: Operating room at Sapporo Medical College and Hospital. PATIENTS: 9 ASA status I and II adult patients scheduled for total ...
Puura A I - - 1994
Edrophonium (EDR) has the advantages of a quick onset of action and reduced cholinergic effects compared to neostigmine (NST) when they are used to antagonize neuromuscular block (NMB). There are few studies about antagonism of very weak residual NMB. Therefore we compared hemodynamic stability, train-of-four (TOF) characteristics and reversal time ...
Norel X - - 1994
Vecuronium (100 microM) but not pancuronium (100 microM) increased the sensitivity of human isolated bronchial preparations (HBP) to exogenous acetylcholine (ACh). The pD2 values obtained from concentration-dependent contractions were: control, 4.59 +/- 0.29 vecuronium, 5.86 +/- 0.31. Vecuronium or pancuronium (100 microM) significantly decreased (50%) the neostigmine contractions in HBP. ...
Koska J - - 1994
Newer neuromuscular blocking drugs provide optimum blockade and can facilitate ventilation, yet if they are discontinued, they allow predictable reversal. This article documents the use of these drugs in the treatment of two pediatric intensive care unit patients who had different physiologic problems and pharmacologic needs and who were ventilator ...
Nishiyama M - - 1994
Thirty-seven patients (ASA I or II) undergoing elective abdominal surgery were randomly allocated to four groups, which were anesthetized with nitrous oxide 67%, oxygen 33% and sevoflurane 0%, 1%, 2% and 3% respectively. We administered clinically used doses of vecuronium for abdominal surgery and studied the duration (the time from ...
Watkins J - - 1994
A survey is presented of neuromuscular drug involvement in 390 clinically severe anaphylactoid reactions (grades II-IV reported to a Sheffield laboratory from 1988 to the end of 1992 from hospitals throughout the UK. Despite advances in patient monitoring and newer drugs, the reporting frequency and individual drug involvement were remarkably ...
Esener Z - - 1994
The practice of anesthesia in 10,000 children was analysed and evaluated with the aid of Epi-Info, Version 5. There were 545 newborns, 1573 infants, 3147 children between the ages of 1 and 5 years, and 4735 children between the ages of 6 and 15 years. Female:male ratio was 1:1.9. In ...
Pirttikangas C O - - 1994
This study was set up to evaluate the effects of propofol infusion anaesthesia on immunological function in minor surgery. Twenty-seven patients (median age 51 years, ASA 1-2) scheduled for minor breast surgery were randomly assigned to two groups. Anaesthesia was induced in group 1 with propofol 2.5 mg.kg-1 and maintained ...
Sparr H J - - 1994
After an initial bolus dose (0.6 mg kg-1), 10 patients received a continuous infusion of rocuronium, initially at 0.5 mg kg-1h-1, and then adjusted to maintain 90% twitch depression. Blood samples were analysed for 420 min after switching off the infusion. The dose required to maintain the block was 595 ...
Viby-Mogensen J - - 1994
The available evidence indicates that rocuronium is one of the least potent non-depolarizing muscle relaxants, having a clinical duration, recovery index and reversal time similar to those of atracurium and vecuronium. The onset time, however, is significantly shorter than that of currently used non-depolarizing muscle relaxants. Rocuronium seems to be ...
Whalley D G - - 1994
We have determined the cumulative dose-response relationship for vecuronium from the evoked compound electromyogram of the hypothenar muscles in eight patients who were receiving carbamazepine. The ED50, ED90 and ED95 were 29, 52 and 64 micrograms kg-1, respectively, and were significantly different (P < 0.05) from those of a control ...
Nishiyama Y - - 1994
This study compares the neuromuscular blocking effect of nondepolarizing relaxants on the thenar and hypothenar muscles in 14 anesthetized patients with nitrous oxide-halothane. Vecuronium (60 micrograms.kg-1 iv) or pancuronium (60 micrograms.kg-1 iv) was given and supramaximal stimulation was applied to ulnar nerve at the wrist. The evoked compound action potentials ...
Mirakhur R K - - 1994
The safety of neuromuscular relaxants can be assessed according to their cardiovascular and autonomic effects, their liability to release histamine, their tendency to cause anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions, their effect on cholinesterase, on intra-ocular and intracranial pressure, their tendency to cumulation and their reversibility. Any adverse effects of metabolites are also potential ...
Oikkonen M - - 1994
To verify, whether drugs used to treat hypertension, coronary disease, and heart insufficiency modify the hemodynamic effects of the combinations alfentanil-vecuronium and alfentanil-pancuronium, 36 patients taking these drugs (most often beta-adrenergic antagonists) were randomized to receive either vecuronium or pancuronium in connection with ophthalmic surgery. In comparison with healthy patients, ...
Tsuchiya A - - 1994
This study was designed to evaluate the potentiation by nitrous oxide of the neuromuscular blockade by vecuronium measured by the evoked electromyogram (EMG). Vecuronium, 0.0225, 0.03 or 0.04 mg.kg-1 was given during thiamylalfentanyl anesthesia with and without nitrous oxide, and EMG of the hypothenar muscle was measured. ED50 and ED95 ...
Dawance G - - 1994
A secondary neuromuscular blockade can occur after transfusion of autologous blood withdrawn after injection of muscle relaxants. In this study time course of muscle relaxation after transfusion of blood withdrawn before or after administration of atracurium (A) or vecuronium (V) was assessed. Forty adults undergoing haemorrhagic urologic surgery were included ...
Matsuda M - - 1994
A 49-year-old male with primary aldosteronism, accompanied by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), underwent our anesthesiological management for resection of a left adrenal tumor. The preoperative examination revealed hypertension, mild nephropathy and hypokalemia. Spilnolactone treatment was discontinued 3 days before surgery. In the operating room, a Swan-Ganz catheter was inserted for monitoring ...
Gaggero G - - 1994
Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic agent with a short half-life allowing rapid recovery; it has cerebral hemodynamic effects similar to those of thiopental. The aim of the present study was to describe 83 patients (mean age 50.6 +/- 15.1 yrs) scheduled for intracranial surgery in whom a total intravenous anesthesia ...
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