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Panyi G - - 2003
Distribution and lateral organization of Kv1.3 potassium channels and CD3 molecules were studied by using electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Immunogold labeling and electron microscopy showed that the distribution of FLAG epitope-tagged Kv1.3 channels (Kv1.3/FLAG) significantly differs from the stochastic Poisson distribution in the ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Trotter Linda - - 2002
A stress-activated protein kinase pathway comprising mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the transcription factor c-Jun is implicated in neuronal apoptosis. Using an immune-complex kinase assay, we measured the activation of MKK4 and MKK7 in low potassium (LK)-induced apoptosis of rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGN). MKK7, ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Hashim S S Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, - - 2014
Lithium potassium borate (LKB) glasses co-doped with TiO2 and MgO were prepared using the melt quenching technique. The glasses were cut into transparent chips and exposed to gamma rays of (60)Co to study their thermoluminescence (TL) properties. The TL glow curve of the Ti-doped material featured a single prominent peak ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Tremblay A - - 1992
Increasing evidence indicates that the adrenal cortex of most mammalian species expresses distinct forms of cytochrome P-450(11 beta), a steroidogenic enzyme that catalyses the terminal steps in the biosynthesis of both glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. In the human, mouse, and rat, two genes have been isolated, designated CYP11B1 and CYP11B2. The ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Di Diego J M - - 1993
BACKGROUND: Pinacidil is known to augment a time-independent outward current in cardiac tissues by activating the ATP-regulated potassium channels. Activation of this current, IK-ATP, is thought to be responsible for increased potassium permeability in ischemia. The contribution of IK-ATP activation to arrhythmogenesis and the role of activation of this current ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Cunha J F - - 2001
We examined some of the mechanisms by which the aspirin metabolite and the naturally occurring metabolite gentisic acid induced relaxation of the guinea pig trachea in vitro. In preparations with or without epithelium and contracted by histamine, gentisic acid caused concentration-dependent and reproducible relaxation, with mean EC(50) values of 18 ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Perregaux D - - 1994
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages produce large quantities of interleukin (IL)-1 beta but in the absence of a secondary stimulus little of this cytokine is proteolytically processed to its mature biologically active state and externalized. The potassium-proton ionophore nigericin and ATP are known to promote the maturation and release of ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Kloppenburg P - - 1999
The two pyloric dilator (PD) neurons are components [along with the anterior burster (AB) neuron] of the pacemaker group of the pyloric network in the stomatogastric ganglion of the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus. Dopamine (DA) modifies the motor pattern generated by the pyloric network, in part by exciting or inhibiting ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Cieslak John A - - 2010
Electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy is a well-established technique for the study of naturally occurring paramagnetic metal centers. The technique has been used to study copper complexes, hemes, enzyme mechanisms, micellar water content, and water permeation profiles in membranes, among other applications. In the present study, we combine ESEEM ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Dennis Adrienne T - - 2011
The most common cause for adverse cardiac events by antidepressants is acquired long QT syndrome (acLQTS), which produces electrocardiographic abnormalities that have been associated with syncope, torsade de pointes arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. acLQTS is often caused by direct block of the cardiac potassium current I(Kr)/hERG, which is crucial ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Krishnan Yamini - - 2012
The HERG (human ether-a-go-go related gene) potassium channel aids in the repolarization of the cardiomyocyte membrane at the end of each action potential. We have previously shown that sustained protein kinase A or C (PKA and PKC) activity specifically enhances channel synthesis over the course of hours to days in ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Sroubek Jakub J Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Wilf Family Cardiovascular Research Institute, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, United - - 2012
We encountered a high degree of clonal hybridoma loss in the course of generating antibodies specific for the hERG potassium channel. A protein that is crucial for controlling heart rhythm, is abundant in parts of the brain and is abnormally expressed in some tumors. Intracellular domains of the protein were ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Zhu J - - 2001
Kv1.1 and Kv1.4 potassium channels are expressed as mature glycosylated proteins in brain, whereas they exhibited striking differences in degree of trans-Golgi glycosylation conversion and high cell surface expression when they were transiently expressed as homomers in cell lines. Kv1.4 exhibited a 70% trans-Golgi glycosylation conversion, whereas Kv1.1 showed none, ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Wolfart J - - 2001
The physiological activity of dopaminergic midbrain (DA) neurons is important for movement, cognition, and reward. Altered activity of DA neurons is a key finding in schizophrenia, but the cellular mechanisms have not been identified. Recently, KCNN3, a gene that encodes a member (SK3) of the small-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels, ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Buckle D R - - 1993
The airways relaxant effects and mechanism of action of the potassium channel activators BRL 38227 and pinacidil have been compared in guinea-pig and human airways. BRL 38227 was a potent relaxant in guinea-pig isolated trachealis (IC50 = 4.9 x 10(-7) M against spontaneous tone) and human isolated bronchi (IC50 = ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Ariano Marjorie A - - 2005
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that mainly affects the projection neurons of the striatum and cerebral cortex. Genetic mouse models of HD have shown that neurons susceptible to the mutation exhibit morphological and electrophysiological dysfunctions before and during development of the behavioral phenotype. We used HD transgenic mouse ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Tao Q - - 1994
Membrane potential and ionic currents were studied in cultured rabbit retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells using whole-cell patch clamp and perforated-patch recording techniques. RPE cells exhibited both outward and inward voltage-dependent currents and had a mean membrane capacitance of 26 +/- 12 pF (SD, n = 92). The resting membrane ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Heitzmann Dirk - - 2007
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Heteromeric KCNEx/KCNQ1 (=KvLQT1, Kv7.1) K(+) channels are important for repolarization of cardiac myocytes, endolymph secretion in the inner ear, gastric acid secretion, and transport across epithelia. They are modulated by pH in a complex way: homomeric KCNQ1 is inhibited by external acidification (low pH(e)); KCNE2/KCNQ1 is activated; and for ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Huang Y - - 1994
p21ras plays a critical role in cell growth, differentiation, and oncogenic transformation. However, the final physiological effectors of p21ras-mediated signal transduction remain to be determined. We have used patch clamp electrophysiology, pharmacological agents, and transfection with specific Ras or Raf plasmids, to demonstrate that induction of a unique Ca(2+)-activated K+ ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Yao Z - - 1994
The major objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of ischemic preconditioning and two endogenous substances, adenosine and acetylcholine (ACh), on myocardial infarct size to determine the role of the cardiac KATP channel in mediating these effects. Barbital-anesthetized open-chest dogs subjected to 60 min of left anterior ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Mouhat Stéphanie - - 2008
Animal venoms are rich natural sources of bioactive compounds, including peptide toxins acting on the various types of ion channels, i.e. K(+), Na(+), Cl(-) and Ca(2+). Among K+ channel-acting toxins, those selective for voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels are widely represented and have been isolated from the venoms of numerous animal ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Vianna-Jorge Rosane - - 2004
Human peripheral blood T lymphocytes possess two types of K(+) channels: the voltage-gated Kv1.3 and the calcium-activated IKCa1 channels. The use of peptidyl inhibitors of Kv1.3 and IKCa1 indicated that these channels are involved in the maintenance of membrane potential and that they play a crucial role in Ca(2+) signaling ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Bielanska Joanna - - 2010
Voltage-dependent K(+) channels (Kv) control repolarization and membrane potential in electrically excitable cells. In addition, Kv channels are involved in the maintenance of vascular smooth muscle tone, insulin release, epithelial K(+) transport, cell proliferation and leukocyte activation. Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 are widely distributed throughout the body and are involved in ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Agarwal R - - 1994
When normal people ingest 90 mEq/day of K+ in their diet, they absorb about 90% of intake (81 mEq) and excrete an equivalent amount of K+ in the urine. Normal fecal K+ excretion averages about 9 mEq/day. The vast majority of intestinal K+ absorption occurs in the small intestine; the ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Yu S P - - 1997
Apoptosis of mouse neocortical neurons induced by serum deprivation or by staurosporine was associated with an early enhancement of delayed rectifier (IK) current and loss of total intracellular K+. This IK augmentation was not seen in neurons undergoing excitotoxic necrosis or in older neurons resistant to staurosporine-induced apoptosis. Attenuating outward ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Challinor-Rogers J L - - 1994
1. Interest in ATP-sensitive K (KATP) channels first arose when it was shown that hypoglycaemic sulphonylureas, such as glibenclamide, closed these channels in pancreatic beta-cells to cause insulin release. The demonstration that certain smooth muscle relaxants (K channel openers) may exert their actions through opening a similar channel in vascular ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Bielanska J - - 2009
Membrane ion channels participate in cancerous processes such as proliferation, migration and invasion, which contribute to metastasis. Increasing evidence indicates that voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) channels are involved in the proliferation of many types of cells, including tumor cells. Kv channels have generated immense interest as a promising tool for developing ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Troadec J D - - 2000
We have previously investigated the effects of extracellular ATP on the concentration of free cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) from rat cultured neurohypophysial astrocytes (pituicytes). We demonstrated that ATP acts via a P2Y receptor to increase [Ca2+]i. In the present study, we examine the effect of ATP on K+ efflux using 86Rb+ ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Wald H - - 1997
The channel-inducing factor (CHIF) is an epithelial-specific transmembrane protein, which is induced by aldosterone in distal colon (but not in kidney) and can evoke K+ conductance in Xenopus oocytes. The current study examined the possibility that CHIF participates in maintaining K+ balance by assessing its regulation during variations in K+ ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Wang K - - 1993
Hepatocytes exhibit a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) during hypotonic shock, which comprises loss of intracellular K+ and Cl- accompanied by hyperpolarization of transmembrane potential (Vm) due to an increase in membrane K+ conductance, (GK). To examine hepatocyte K+ homeostasis during RVD, double-barrel, K+-selective microelectrodes were used to measure changes in ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Bairamian D - - 1991
The effects of loop diuretics and ion substitution on the 2-min uptake of K (86Rb as marker) were analyzed to obtain evidence for K cotransport with Na and Cl in the choroid plexus epithelium. The isolated plexuses, which were excised from lateral ventricles of adult rats, were bathed in artificial ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Zhao G S - - 1984
It was found that the higher the [Na+]i is in erythrocytes and leukocytes and the lower the Na pump activity the higher is the blood pressure level. In normotensive people the [Na+]i in blood cells was lower and the leukocyte [K+]i higher, which is in accordance with the discovery that ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Klees G - - 2005
In leech P neurons the inhibition of the Na(+)-K(+) pump by ouabain or omission of bath K(+) leaves the membrane potential unaffected for a prolonged period or even induces a marked membrane hyperpolarization, although the concentration gradients for K(+) and Na(+) are attenuated substantially. As shown previously, this stabilization of ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Dubois-Randé J L - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the relation, if any, between fluid overload in congestive heart failure (CHF) and a newly discovered endogenous natriuretic factor acting like loop diuretic drugs: cotransport inhibitory factor (CIF). BACKGROUND: The humoral mechanisms regulating volume overload in CHF are not fully understood. Therefore, we investigated ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Wang H - - 2000
Nicotine has been shown to depolarize membrane potential and to lengthen action potential duration in isolated cardiac preparations. To investigate whether this is a consequence of direct interaction of nicotine with inward rectifier K(+) channels which are a key determinant of membrane potentials, we assessed the effects of nicotine on ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Arkett S A - - 1994
During resorption of mineralized tissues, osteoclasts are exposed to marked changes in the concentration of extracellular Ca2+ and H+. We examined the effects of these cations on two types of K+ currents previously described in these cells. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of membrane currents were made from osteoclasts freshly isolated ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Colom L V - - 1998
Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are severely depleted early in Alzheimer's disease and appear particularly susceptible to amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) toxicity in vivo. To model this effect in vitro, a cholinergic septal cell line (SN56) was exposed to A beta. SN56 cells exhibited a tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive outward K+ current with ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Rodríguez-Navarro Alonso - - 2006
All living cells have an absolute requirement for K+, which must be taken up from the external medium. In contrast to marine organisms, which live in a medium with an inexhaustible supply of K+, terrestrial life evolved in oligotrophic environments where the low supply of K+ limited the growth of ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Hasin Y - - 1984
Interruption of synthesis of ATP during hypoxia or ischemia can produce membrane depolarization that may be related to inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase. To examine this hypothesis, the effects of exposure of cultured chick embryo ventricular cells to 1 mM cyanide (CN), to 20 mM 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), to CN + 2-DG, and ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Vais H - - 1995
The effects of ryanodine, 9,21-didehydroryanodine and 9,21-didehydroryanodol on two types of K(+) channel (a maxi, Ca(2+)-activated, 170pS channel (BK channel) and an inward rectifier, stretch sensitive channel of 35 pS conductance (IK channel)found in the plasma membrane of locust skeletal muscle have been investigated. 10(-9) M-10(-5) M ryanodine irreversibly induced ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Malysz J - - 2001
PURPOSE: Cavernous smooth muscle cells have a key role in the control of penile erection and detumescence. In this study the types of smooth muscle cells and currents present in isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum myocytes were characterized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical methods were used to identify cavernous smooth muscle cells. ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Hertel Brigitte - - 2005
Structural analysis of K+ channel pores suggests that the selectivity filter of the pore is an inherent sensor for extracellular K+ (Ko+); channels seem to be inactivated at low Ko+ because of a destabilization of the conducting state and a collapse of the pore. In the present study, the effect ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Zakharov Sergey I - - 2005
Pharmacologic approaches to activate K+ channels represent an emerging strategy to regulate membrane excitability. Here we report the identification and characterization of a lipid soluble toxin, mallotoxin (rottlerin), which potently activates the large conductance voltage and Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BK) expressed in a heterologous expression system and human vascular smooth ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Gomora J C - - 1999
Bovine adrenal zona fasciculata cells express a novel K+ current (IAC) that sets the resting potential while it couples adrenocorticotropin and angiotensin II receptors to membrane depolarization and cortisol secretion. IAC is distinctive among K+ channels both in its activation by ATP and its inhibition by cyclic AMP. Whole-cell and ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Newman E A - - 1993
The voltage- and K(+)-dependent properties of Müller cell currents and channels were characterized in freshly dissociated salamander Müller cells. In whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments, cells with endfeet intact and cells missing endfeet both displayed strong inward rectification. The rectification was similar in shape in both groups of cells but currents were ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Colden-Stanfield M - - 1990
Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) respond to bradykinin with an increase in cytosolic-free Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, accompanied by an increase in surface membrane K+ permeability. In this study, electrophysiological measurement of K+ current was combined with 86Rb+ efflux measurements to characterize the K+ flux pathway in BAECs. Bradykinin- and Ca2(+)-activated ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Reddy M M - - 2006
Absorptive epithelial cells must admit large quantities of salt (NaCl) during the transport process. How these cells avoid swelling to protect functional integrity in the face of massive salt influx is a fundamental, unresolved problem. A special preparation of the human sweat duct provides critical insights into this crucial issue. ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Costa Alex - - 2004
The expression pattern of the KDC1 gene, coding for an inwardly-rectifying K(+) channel of Daucus carota , is described in several embryo stages and seedling tissues. Relative quantitative RT-PCR experiments indicated that, during (somatic) embryonic development, the KDC1 transcript appears as early as the globular stage and that the transcript ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Rusch N J - - 1994
Rat arterial muscle cells show an elevated Ca(2+)-dependent K+ efflux during the established phase of hypertension. This association of enhanced K+ efflux with high arterial pressure implies that changes of in vivo blood pressure can alter the level of K+ channel current in arterial membranes. We directly tested this hypothesis ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
Piwnica-Worms D - - 1985
The polystrand preparation of cultured chick heart cells has a unidirectional transmembrane Cl- efflux that is twice K+ efflux. However, Cl- conductance of this heart cell membrane is low [regardless of extracellular K+ (K+o)], suggesting the existence of electroneutral Cl--dependent transport mechanisms. Furosemide (10(-3) M) decreases the 36Cl tracer efflux ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 258
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