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Soma L R - - 2007
Anabolic steroids (ABS) boldenone (BL; 1.1 mg/kg) and stanozolol (ST; 0.55 mg/kg) were administered i.m. to horses and the plasma samples collected up to 64 days. Anabolic steroids and androgenic steroids (ANS) in plasma were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The limit of detection of all analytes was ...
Ferretti G - - 2007
The residue profiles of boldenone (17beta-Bol), its epimer (17alpha-Bol) and the related compound androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD), were investigated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in urine of male calves orally treated with boldenone, boldenone esters, and/or ADD. In all the experiments with the administered steroids residues of 17alpha-Bol decreased rapidly after ...
Martello S - - 2007
Several studies have highlighted that nutritional supplements may contain undeclared substances that are banned by the International Olympic Committee (IOC)/World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). This paper describes a qualitative liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS/MS) method to detect anabolic androgenic steroids (4-androsten-3,17-dion, 4-oestren-3,17-dion, 5alpha-androsten-17beta-ol-3-one, boldenone, nandrolone, nandrolone decanoate, ...
Draisci R - - 2007
The residue profiles of 17alpha-/17beta-boldenone conjugated (17alpha/beta-Bol) and ADD were investigated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in urine of male veal calves fed two commercial milk replacers, with different content of cholesterol and phytosterols. The urine samples were collected within 4 h after feeding and further from all the ...
Verheyden K - - 2007
Current evidence suggests that neo formation of the anabolic steroid boldenone (androsta-1,4-diene-17-ol-3-one) occurs in calves' faecal material, making it difficult to distinguish between illegally administered boldenone and its potential endogenous presence. This strengthens the urgent need to elucidate the pathway leading to boldenone formation. In our laboratory, the invertebrate Neomysis ...
Le Bizec Bruno - - 2006
Boldenone is an androgenic steroid that improves the growth and food conversion in food producing animals. In most countries worldwide, this anabolic steroid is forbidden for meat production. Until recently, the control of its illegal use was based either on 17beta-boldenone or 17alpha-boldenone (its main metabolite in cattle) identification in ...
Conneely Gráinne - - 2007
In the presented work, a disposable immunosensor for the detection of testosterone, an endogenous steroid hormone, in bovine urine has been developed using screen-printed electrodes (SPEs). Due to concerns over the use of steroid hormones as growth promoters, the EU prohibits their use in food producing animals. Consequently, rigorous screening ...
Van Poucke C - - 2007
Nineteen different dietary supplements, ordered through the internet and intercepted by the Belgian pharmaceutical inspection at the post office, were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the presence of anabolic steroids. After a methanolic extraction the samples were screened for the presence of 49 compounds. This ...
Gasparini Mara - - 2007
Natural occurrence or illegal treatment of boldenone (BOLD) presence in cattle urine is under debate within the European Union. Separation of conjugated and unconjugated forms of 17alpha-boldenone (alpha-BOLD) and 17beta-boldenone (beta-BOLD) and presence of related molecules as androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) appear critical points for the decision of an illegal use. The ...
Blokland M H - - 2007
One potential explanation for the presence of beta-boldenone in calf urine is contamination of the sample with feces containing beta-boldenone. It has been demonstrated that after oral and intramuscular administration of beta-boldenone esters, several metabolites are formed and excreted in urine. One of the (minor) metabolites is 6beta-hydroxy-17alpha-boldenone. This paper ...
Lu Huihui - - 2006
Electrochemical based immunosensors for the detection of boldenone and methylboldenone in bovine urine were described in this paper. The immunosensors were fabricated by immobilizing boldenone-bovine serum albumin conjugate on the surface of screen-printed electrodes (SPEs), and followed by the competition between the free analyte and coating conjugate with corresponding antibodies. ...
Daniels J M A - - 2006
A 34-year-old bodybuilder presented at the emergency room with fever, vomiting and muscle cramps that had started during a bodybuilding session. Several days before he started training he had used tablets and intramuscular injections containing the anabolic steroids: dehydro-chloro-methyltestosterone, boldenone and trenbolone. In addition, he had taken clenbuterol tablets, liothyronine ...
Guan Fuyu - - 2006
Anabolic steroids are structurally similar compounds, and their product-ion spectra obtained by tandem mass spectrometry under electrospray ionization conditions are quite difficult to interpret because of poly-ring structures and lack of a charge-retaining center in their chemical structures. In the present study, the fragmentation of nine anabolic steroids of interest ...
Pompa G - - 2006
Conflicting findings regarding the boldenone content of bovine faeces suggest it may be synthesized de novo in emitted faeces. We tested this hypothesis by analysing uncontaminated urine, fresh and various forms of dried faeces from 10 calves (not given boldenone) by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for 17alpha- and 17beta-boldenone (alpha ...
Fidani Marco - - 2006
Bacteria frequently found in equine urine samples may cause degradation of 17beta-OH steroids. A simple liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method has been developed to evaluate the microbiological contamination of equine urine as a marker of poor storage conditions. Norethandrolone was used as the internal standard, and the linearity, sensitivity, ...
Kim Yunje - - 2006
Boldione (1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione) is a direct precursor (prohormone) to the anabolic steroid boldenone (1,4-androstadiene-17beta-ol-3-one). It is advertised as a highly anabolic/androgenic compound promoting muscularity, enhancing strength and overall physical performance, and is available on the Internet and in health stores. This work was undertaken to determine and characterize boldione and its ...
Nielen Michel W F - - 2006
The abuse of esters of natural androgenic steroids in cattle fattening and sports is hard to control via routine urine testing. The esters are rapidly hydrolysed in vivo into substances which are also endogenously present in urine. In veterinary control strange findings of 17beta-testosterone and 17alpha-testosterone in urine are often ...
Guan Fuyu - - 2005
Anabolic androgenic steroids are related to the male sex hormones and are abused in equine sports. In an effort to deter the abuse of anabolic steroids, a sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for detection, quantification and confirmation of eight major anabolic steroids (testosterone, normethandrolone, nandrolone, boldenone, methandrostenolone, tetrahydrogestrinone (THG), trenbolone, ...
Thevis Mario - - 2005
Mass spectrometric identification and characterization of steroids using electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry has advantages in drug testing and doping control analysis attributable to limitations of gas chromatography followed by electron ionization mass spectrometry. Steroids with an androstadiene-17beta-ol-3-one nucleus and double bonds located either at C-1 and C-4, C-4 ...
Poelmans S - - 2005
Following findings of 17beta-19-nortestosterone (150-200 microg kg(-1)) in pigs of unspecified gender imported into the European Union, a study to determine steroid and hormone levels in swine from six age/gender categories (uncastrated 'old' boars, cryptorchids, one intersex, barrows, gilts and sows) was initiated. Indeed, for some hormones there has been ...
Poelmans S - - 2005
Boldenone (1,4-androstadiene-17-ol-3-one, Bol) has been the subject of a heated debate because of ongoing confusion about its endogenous or exogenous origin when detected in one of its forms in faecal or urine samples from cattle. An expert report was recently written on the presence and metabolism of Bol in various ...
Toffolatti L - - 2006
In order to identify indirect molecular biomarkers of anabolic treatments in veal calves, an animal experiment was performed using two combinations of growth promoters (consisting of boldenone undecylenate and estradiol benzoate, and of testosterone enantate and estradiol benzoate). We selected a set of 12 genes that are known to be ...
Kyprianou Iacovos S - - 2005
Detector characterization with modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) inadequately predicts image quality when the imaging system includes focal spot unsharpness and patient scatter. The concepts of MTF, noise power spectrum, noise equivalent quanta and DQE were referenced to the object plane and generalized to include the ...
Ghatge Radhika P - - 2005
Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), the major progestin used for oral contraception and hormone replacement therapy, has been implicated in increased breast cancer risk. Is this risk due to its progestational or androgenic properties? To address this, we assessed the transcriptional effects of MPA as compared with those of progesterone and dihydrotestosterone ...
Pu Fan - - 2004
A study of the equine phase II metabolism of the anabolic agent boldenone is reported. Boldenone sulfate, boldenone glucuronide and their C17-epimers were synthesised as reference standards in our lab and a method was developed for their detection in a horse urine matrix. Solid phase extraction was used to purify ...
Ho Emmie N M - - 2004
Boldenone (1,2-dehydrotestosterone) is a common veterinary anabolic agent. Its structure is very similar to testosterone. Testosterone is endogenous in the horse, whereas there has been no report concerning the detection of endogenous boldenone. This paper reports the direct observation of sulphate conjugate of boldenone in equine urine from entires. The ...
Sgoifo Rossi C A - - 2004
European Directive 96/22/EC, which controls veterinary residues in animals, does not permit the presence of synthetic growth promoters in products of animal origin or in livestock. Boldenone is categorized in class A3 (growth promoters -- steroids) and is thus a banned substance. Testing of veal urine for banned substances is ...
De Brabander H F - - 2004
The review summarizes current knowledge on the possible illegal use of the anabolic steroid boldenone. The presence of' boldenone and metabolites in different animal species and the possibility of the occurrence of endogenous boldenone and metabolites is assessed, as are the methods of analysis used for detection. Different laboratories in ...
Nielen Michel W F - - 2004
The origin, i.e. natural occurrence or illegal treatment, of findings of 17alpha-boldenone (alpha-Bol) and 17beta-boldenone (beta-Bol) in urine and faeces of cattle is under debate within the European Union. A liquid chromatographic positive ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometric method is presented for the confirmatory analysis of 17beta-boldenone, 17alpha-boldenone and an ...
Groot M J - - 2004
Histopathology of male cattle previously found positive for béta-boldenone in urine in the Netherlands and in Italy was studied. The animals were derived from practice and several weeks had passed after the finding of béta-boldenone before the animals were examined. The animals consisted of 34 male veal calves and one ...
Ciuffreda P - - 2004
Complete 1H and 13C spectral assignments of 17beta- and 17alpha-hydroxy epimers of three biologically active sterols (boldenone, 3-methoxyestradiol and 3-methoxydihydroequilenin) were achieved making use of one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques (1D-HOHAHA, DEPT, COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, HSQC and COLOC).
Stolker Alida A M - - 2004
The EU criteria for the confirmation of the presence of illegal compounds in biological matrices were recently revised. The old and the revised criteria were applied to relative ion intensities obtained for five anabolic steroids (methylboldenone, methyltestosterone, ethynylestradiol, beta-boldenone and beta-nortestosterone) in meat (cow, pig, turkey) and fish at concentrations ...
Gonzalo-Lumbreras R - - 2003
A systematic optimization of the HPLC separation of a complex mixture containing urinary steroids (anabolics and corticoids), boldenone and bolasterone (synthetic anabolics) by micellar liquid chromatography has been carried out. The isocratic micellar mobile phases (from binary to quaternary) consisted of sodium dodecyl sulphate and organic modifiers such as acetonitrile, ...
Horinouchi Masae - - 2003
In a previous study we isolated the meta-cleavage enzyme gene, tesB, that encodes an enzyme that carries out a meta-cleavage reaction in the breakdown of testosterone by Comamonas testeroni TA441 (M. Horinouchi et al., Microbiology 147:3367-3375, 2001). Here we report the isolation of a gene, tesD, that encodes a hydrolase ...
DeLeon Katrina R KR Behavioral Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychology, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2002
Repeated anabolic-androgenic steroid treatment during adolescence increases hypothalamic vasopressin and facilitates offensive aggression in male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). The current study investigated whether anabolic-androgenic steroid exposure during this developmental period influenced vasopressin V(1A) receptor binding activity in the hypothalamus and several other brain areas implicated in aggressive behavior in ...
Van Poucke Christof - - 2002
Detection of anabolic steroids in animal urine samples is currently performed with GC-MS in our lab. However we found that the detection of 17 alpha-trenbolone (17 alpha-TbOH), 4-chloroandrost-4-ene-3,17-dion (CLAD), 16- beta -OH-stanozolol (16OHstan) and alpha- and beta-boldenone (alpha -Bol, beta -Bol) was very difficult, if not impossible. Therefore a sensitive, ...
Verslycke Tim - - 2002
Testosterone metabolism by Neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea) was assessed to obtain initial data on its metabolic capacity. N. integer were exposed to both testosterone and [(14)C]testosterone. Identification of testosterone metabolites and endogenous steroids was performed using thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography with multiple mass spectrometry. Endogenous production of testosterone in ...
Legro R S - - 2001
We sought to create an animal model for the development of endometrial cancer in women with androgen excess. We examined the effects of estradiol and androgen, both alone and as precursors to estrogen biosynthesis on human endometrial cancers transplanted into a nude mouse model. We transplanted an estrogen-responsive, well-differentiated, established ...
Ashraf-khorassani M - - 2000
The solubility of testosterone, boldenone, androstenone, etiocholanolone, and epitestosterone are measured in pure supercritical CO2. Testosterone exhibited the highest solubility in supercritical CO2. The solubility of all steroids except epitestosterone increased by one order of magnitude with increasing pressure from 100 to 400 atm. Epitestosterone had the lowest solubility in ...
Williams T M - - 2000
Androgenic steroids are used in female greyhound dogs to prevent the onset of estrus; moreover, these steroids also have potent anabolic activity. As anabolic steroids increase muscle mass and aggression in animals, the excessive use of these agents in racing greyhounds gives an unfair performance advantage to treated dogs. The ...
Gonzalo-Lumbreras R - - 2000
An HPLC separation of a complex mixture containing 13 urinary anabolics and corticoids, and boldenone and bolasterone (synthetic anabolics) has been carried out. The applied optimization method involved the use of binary, ternary and quaternary mobile phases containing acetonitrile, methanol or tetrahydrofuran as organic modifiers. The effect of different reversed-phase ...
Williams T M - - 2000
Forensic drug testing of anabolic steroids in racing animals is required because of the potential for steroid abuse. Often when the metabolic products of an administered compound have not been identified, the analysis and verification of the administered compound is difficult. The objective of this study was to qualitatively identify ...
Gaillard Y - - 1999
We have developed a powerful and simple sensitive method for testing hair for anabolic steroids and their esters. A 100-mg amount of powdered hair was treated with methanol in an ultrasonic bath for extraction of esters, then alkaline digested with 1 M NaOH for an optimum recovery of other drugs. ...
Rendic S S Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, - - 1999
Metabolism of steroid hormones with anabolic properties was studied in vitro using human recombinant CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and 2B6 enzymes. The enzyme formats used for CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 were insect cell microsomes expressing human CYP enzymes and purified recombinant human CYP enzymes in a reconstituted system. CYP3A4 enzyme formats incubated with ...
Choi M H - - 1999
A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method is described which uses negative ion chemical ionization (NCI) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the determination of eight anabolic steroids in human urine. Eight anabolic steroids were derivatized by heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA), and were determined using GC/NCI-MS and GC/NCI-MS/MS. The linear correlation coefficients ...
Van Puymbroeck M - - 1998
In Belgium, to control the abuse of anabolic steroids in cattle, urine samples have been gradually replaced by feces samples, because the latter can be obtained more easily from living animals. Urine and feces samples were collected from heifers after administration of boldenone, norethandrolone or ethylestrenol. Metabolites present in feces ...
Van Puymbroeck M - - 1998
17 alpha-Boldenone (17 alpha-BOL) and/or 17 beta-boldenone (17 beta-BOL) appear occasionally in fecal matter of cattle. In addition to 17 alpha-BOL, a whole array of boldenone related substances can be found in the same samples. In vitro experiments with microsomal liver preparations and isolated hepatocytes combined with the excretion profiles ...
Van Puymbroeck M - - 1998
Current veterinary residue analysis mainly focuses on the monitoring of residues of the administered parent compound. However, it is possible that larger amounts of metabolites are excreted and that they can have a prolonged excretion period. In order to unravel specific metabolic steps and to identify possible biological markers, two ...
La Perle K M - - 1998
Multisystemic, eosinophilic, epitheliotropic disease and intestinal lymphosarcoma were diagnosed in a Paso Fino mare that presented with anorexia and weight loss. The stomach, ileum, cecum, colon, pancreas, and lungs were infiltrated by large numbers of eosinophils forming prominent eosinophilic granulomas, as well as lymphocytes and plasma cells. Two jejunal masses ...
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