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Markou Nikolaos - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: Available data on colistin pharmacokinetics in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) are limited. Our aim was to study colistin pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients treated with colistin methane sulphonate for Gram-negative sepsis and undergoing continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration for acute renal failure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three patients were ...
Uchibori Satoshi - - 2012
Rothia dentocariosa is an indigenous microbial flora of dental plaque. To examine the bacterium population in oral cavities, a novel selective medium, designated RDSM, was developed for the isolation of R. dentocariosa. RDSM was prepared by adding 0.5μg/ml of lincomycin, 10μg/ml of colistin, and 40% sucrose to Heart Infusion (HI). ...
Yang C M - - 2012
A total of 180 weanling pigs (21 ± 3 d of age; 5.98 ± 0.04 kg) were used to investigate the effect of Chito-oligosaccharide (COS) on growth performance, intestinal barrier function, intestinal morphology, and cecal microflora. Based on initial BW, gender and litter, the pigs were given 5 treatments during ...
Osuka Akinori - - 2012
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: We have reported that altered gut flora is associated with septic complications and eventual death in critically ill patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. It is unclear how fecal pH affects these patients. To determine whether fecal pH can be used as an assessment tool for the clinical ...
Zankari Ea - - 2012
Identification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic laboratories and is anticipated to substitute traditional methods for resistance gene identification. Thus, the current ...
Azzopardi Ernest A EA Wound Biology Group, Tissue Engineering and Reparative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF144XY, United Kingdom. - - 2013
Colistin is a venerable drug that has found renewed interest because of multidrug resistance (MDR) and the shortfall of effective antibiotics. We present a synthesis of publication trends on MDR infection, colistin, and its adverse events, as a measure of the medical-academic community's interest, to inform current redevelopment strategies. This ...
Tumbarello Mario - - 2012
Background. The spread of Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) strains that produce Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) has become a significant problem, and treatment of infections caused by these pathogens is a major challenge for clinicians.Methods. In this multicenter retrospective cohort study, conducted in three large Italian teaching hospitals, we examined 125 patients with bloodstream ...
Vidaillac Céline - - 2012
Colistin resistance, although uncommon, is increasingly being reported among Gram-negative clinical pathogens, and an understanding of its impact on the activity of antimicrobials is now evolving. We evaluated the potential for synergy of colistin plus trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1/19 ratio), or vancomycin against 12 isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 4), ...
Singh Malkit - - 2012
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare practically achieved disinfection efficacy of some locally available disinfectants on surfaces and infectious microbiological hospital waste. Seven disinfectants were tested at concentrations recommended by manufacturers on rough and smooth surfaces that were contaminated experimentally by locally circulating isolates of methicillin-resistant ...
Sudha Santha - - 2012
Finfish samples obtained from four retail outlets in Cochin between June 2009 and June 2010 were investigated for the occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A total of 182 samples were collected and suspect isolates were identified using standard biochemical tests and were further confirmed by a species-specific tlh gene. V. parahaemolyticus ...
Somily Ali M - - 2012
To examine susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii ) against carbapenems along with colistin and tigecycline as alternative therapeutic options. A total of 117 strains of multidrug-resistant (MDR) non-fermenting Gram negative bacteria isolated from non-duplicate samples were collected consecutively. We included one sample from each ...
Buccoliero Giovanni - - 2012
Antibiotic resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains is an increasing problem in a lot of hospitals. It is a public health emergency because it relates with high mortality rate among patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). From 1/1/2009 to 31/08/2010, in ICU of SS Annunziata Hospital of Taranto, 140 isolated Klebsiella ...
Samonis G - - 2012
The alarmingly increasing resistance rates among non-fermenting Gram-negative species, particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, intensified the interest in alternative antibiotic treatment options. Isepamicin, an old aminoglycoside, may play a role in the treatment of patients with infections caused by those multi-drug resistant pathogens. We evaluated the antimicrobial activity of ...
Araj George F GF Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon. - - 2012
Antimicrobial resistance has been inflecting deleterious health and economic consequences locally and globally. This study addresses the patterns and trends of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents over a decade, at a major tertiary care center in Beirut. Data on bacterial susceptibility patterns at the CAP accredited Clinical Microbiology Laboratory is ...
Sugiura Yoshihiro - - 2012
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulates migration and proliferation of keratinocytes and has been suggested to be involved in wound healing. The cationic antibiotic polymyxin B (PMB) is commonly used as a topical antibiotic for wound care. If PMB possesses an HGF-inducing activity, the antibiotic is potentially beneficial for wound healing ...
Azimi L - - 2012
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Klebsiella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC) among burn infants in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the phenotypic detection of these KPC among isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella spp. A cross-sectional ...
Chen Yen-Hsu - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on recent changes in epidemiological aspects of bacteria-induced intra-abdominal infections (IAIs), including the dominant pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, and emerging resistance phenotypes. RECENT FINDINGS: Enterobacteriaceae species, including Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, remain the major pathogens contributing to abdominal sepsis, although Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ...
Hraiech Sami - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: Squalamine is a steroid extracted from sharks with proven in vitro antibacterial activity. We assessed its efficacy in reducing the lung bacterial load and histological lesions when given via inhalation in a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were inoculated by tracheal intubation with 150 ...
Dai Chongshan - - 2012
Abstract To investigate the neurotoxicity of colistin, female mice received colistin sulfate (7.5 mg/kg/12 h) intravenously for 7 days successively, the behavioral changes, and the neuropathological and electrophysiological characterizations of sciatic nerves were determined prior to administration and at 1, 3, 7 and 15 d thereafter. At 1, 3, 7 ...
Paksu Muhammet Sukru - - 2012
Nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms are a common problem around the world, especially in Intensive Care Units. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of colistin therapy in paediatric patients with severe nosocomial infections caused by MDR Gram-negative bacteria. There were 87 episodes ...
- - 2012
U.S. and international efforts to control carabapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are critical to protect public health. Clinicians caring for patients infected with such organisms have few, if any, therapeutic options available. CRE containing New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM), first reported in a patient who had been hospitalized in New Delhi, India, in ...
Sommerfeld Ross Stacy - - 2012
Bacterial biofilms cause significant infections in the medical field. Antibiotics commonly used to treat these infections often do not achieve complete bacterial eradication. New approaches to eliminate biofilms have focused on dispersion compounds to entice the bacteria to actively escape or disperse from the biofilm, where the bacteria may become ...
Arduino Sonia M - - 2012
Multiple transposons, integrons and carbapenemases were found in Klebsiella pneumoniae as well as the AbaR in Acinetobacter baumannii colistin resistant isolates from different hospitals from Buenos Aires City. PFGE analysis showed a polyclonal dissemination of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among K. pneumoniae, while in A. baumannii isolates was identified the epidemic ...
Fernández-Olmos Ana - - 2012
The ability of antibiotics used in bronchopulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients to prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa early biofilm formation was studied using a biofilm microtitre assay with 57 non-mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates (44 first colonisers and 13 recovered during the initial intermittent colonisation stage) obtained from 35 CF patients. ...
Adawi Azmi - - 2012
The development of an anti-bacterial drug in the form of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting an exposed virulence factor, represents an innovative therapeutic strategy. Consequently, a fully human IgG1 mAb (LST-007) targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) flagellin type b was recombinantly expressed and characterized in vitro and in an infection model ...
Littlewood Kavi J - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Various inhaled antibiotics are currently used for treating chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, however their relative efficacies are unclear. We compared the efficacy of the inhaled antibiotics tobramycin (TIP, TIS-T, TIS-B), colistimethate sodium (colistin) and aztreonam lysine for inhalation (AZLI) based on data from ...
Liu Wei - - 2012
The co-occurrence of L1 and AmpR-L2 with blaNDM-1 gene with an upstream 250-bp promoter was detected in a clinical isolate of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia DCPS-01 which was resistant to all β-lactams and sensitive only to colistin and fluoroquinolones. To investigate expression of resistance genes and the molecular mechanisms of bacteria resistance ...
Arvaniti Kostoula - - 2012
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: To investigate the role of colonization pressure on multi-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii acquisition and define patient-related predictors for carriage at admission and acquisition during hospitalization in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: A 12-month, prospective, cohort study of all patients admitted to a single ICU of a tertiary hospital. ...
Evans N J - - 2012
Digital dermatitis (DD) is a major infectious lameness of dairy cattle and sheep considered to be caused by treponemes. The aim of this study was to identify antibiotics effective against DD treponemes that might be useful in the treatment of ruminant DD in the future or to identify antibiotics useful ...
Walkty Andrew - - 2012
Broth microdilution (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) was used to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of 1549 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates collected in Canada between January 2008 and October 2011. The percentage of isolates susceptible was as follows: amikacin 92.0%, ceftazidime 83.5%, ciprofloxacin 74.3%, colistin 93.4%, gentamicin 76.8%, meropenem 82.7%, and ...
Imberti Roberto - - 2012
Intraventricular colistin, administered as colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), is the last resource for the treatment of central nervous system infections caused by panresistant Gram-negative bacteria. The doses and daily regimens vary considerably and are empirically chosen; the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pharmacokinetics of colistin after intraventricular administration of CMS has never been ...
Zhang Ruifu - - 2012
Mai Po Nature Reserve is the largest mangrove ecosystem and the most polluted coastal water body in Hong Kong. Plasmids screening of 100 Vibrio isolates randomly showed 45 % of them contained 1-3 plasmids. These plasmid(s)-bearing isolates could be divided into 12 groups based on their plasmid profiles. Phylogenetic analysis ...
Waterman Paige - - 2012
Gram-negative bacilli resistance to all antibiotics, except for colistimethate sodium (CMS), is an emerging healthcare concern. Incorporating CMS into orthopedic cement to treat bone and soft-tissue infections due to these bacteria is attractive, but the data regarding the elution of CMS from cement are conflicting. The in vitro analysis of ...
Datta Sanghamitra - - 2012
Extensive use of antibiotics has added to the escalation of antibiotic resistance. This study was undertaken to evaluate the association, if any between antibiotic use and resistance in a hospital setting, and also detect the predominant mechanism of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae over a period of ...
Amin Adnan - - 2012
A total of 112 soil samples were taken from differents areas of district D.I.Khan and Kohat (KPK) Pakistan and screened for production of antibiotics against the Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus. Widest zone of inhibition (18mm) was produced by microorganism isolated from saline soil. The strain was later identified as ...
Hassi Mohammed - - 2012
The treatment of tuberculosis has become more difficult with the worldwide spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover, the prevalence of human disease caused by atypical mycobacteria has also increased in the past two decades and has further complicated the problem of the treatment ...
Fusté Ester - - 2012
Aims: We explored changes in antibiotic susceptibility of Serratia marcescens in the last 50 years by comparing isolates collected between 1945 and 1950, and current isolates. Materials & methods: Isolates were divided into three groups: environmental, clinical and 'old'. Susceptibility was determined by microdilution. Class 1 integrons were determined by ...
Livermore David M - - 2012
In the 1980s, gram-negative pathogens appeared to have been beaten by oxyimino-cephalosporins, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones. Yet these pathogens have fought back, aided by their membrane organization, which promotes the exclusion and efflux of antibiotics, and by a remarkable propensity to recruit, transfer, and modify the expression of resistance genes, including ...
Gales Ana C - - 2012
This study updates the frequency and resistance rates of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from Latin American medical centers enrolled in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. A total of 12,811 bacterial organisms, including 5704 Gram-negative bacilli (44.5%), were consecutively collected (1 per patient) between January 2008 and December 2010 from 10 Latin ...
Afshari Arash - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Among critically ill patients, the diagnosis of bloodstream infection poses a major challenge. Current standard bacterial identification based on blood culture platforms is intrinsically time-consuming and slow. The continuous evolvement of molecular techniques has the potential of providing a faster, more sensitive and direct identification of causative pathogens without ...
Kalin Gamze - - 2012
In this study we aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of high-dose IV colistin (COL) and aerosolized COL for the treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Critically ill adult patients who received IV COL for multidrug-resistant A. baumannii VAP were evaluated retrospectively. A total of 45 patients were ...
Mori Nobuaki - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: The β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) complex plays a critical role in outer membrane protein (OMP) biogenesis. The outer membrane (OM) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is centrally involved in mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. This study aimed to identify effects of a synthetic peptide based on conserved sequences in the putative BamA-binding ...
Wallace Stephanie J SJ Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052, - - 2012
Interaction of colistin and colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) with liposomes has been studied with the view to understanding the limitations to the use of liposomes as a more effective delivery system for pulmonary inhalation of this important class of antibiotic. Thus, in this study, liposomes containing colistin or CMS were prepared ...
Mezghani Maalej S - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: The authors had for aim to monitor Enterobacteriaceae resistance to colistin, during 6 years (2005-2010), and to study the epidemiology of Enterobacteriaceae resistant strains isolated in the Sfax region (Tunisia). DESIGN: This retrospective study was carried out in the microbiology laboratory, at the Habib Bourguiba teaching hospital in Sfax. ...
Mohamed Ami F - - 2012
A previous pharmacokinetic study on dosing of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) at 240 mg (3 million units [MU]) every 8 h indicated that colistin has a long half-life, resulting in insufficient concentrations for the first 12 to 48 h after initiation of treatment. A loading dose would therefore be beneficial. The ...
Milne K E N - - 2012
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is increasingly being isolated from the respiratory tract of individuals with cystic fibrosis, and, because of its multidrug-resistant nature, the selection of suitable treatment regimens can be problematical. Etest methodology was used to facilitate MIC and antimicrobial combination testing on 80 isolates of S. maltophilia cultured from the ...
Ozkan Gülsüm - - 2012
Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical condition that causes renal failure up to 40%. Rhabdomyolysis may be traumatic or nontraumatic. Colistin (polymyxin E) is an effective antibiotic. Nephrotoxicity is a frequently encountered side effect. The nephrotoxic effect of colistin is thought to be associated with increased membrane permeability, cell swelling and lysis, ...
Azad Mohammad A K MA Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Parkville, Victoria 3052, - - 2012
Here, for the first time, we have characterized binding properties of the polymyxin class of antibiotics for human α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) using a combination of biophysical techniques. The binding affinity of colistin, polymyxin B, polymyxin B(3), colistin methansulfonate, and colistin nona-peptide was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), surface plasma ...
Queenan Anne Marie - - 2012
Multidrug resistance among Acinetobacter spp. leaves few effective antibiotic options for treatment. To monitor antibiotic resistance in Acinetobacter spp., the US CAPITAL 2010 Surveillance data were evaluated by patient demographics, specimen source, and hospital ward. Isolates (N=514) were collected from 65 sites across the USA and Puerto Rico. Isolates were ...
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