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Sardelic Sanda - - 2012
One hundred sixty-nine nonreplicate imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated in a large hospital on the coastal region of Croatia were studied. The most active antibiotics were colistin and amikacin. Most of the isolates were multiresistant. The most prevalent serotype was O12, followed by O11. Six strains carried the bla(VIM-2) gene ...
Gauthier Timothy P - - 2012
Intravenous colistin is used to treat resistant Gram-negative infections and is associated with nephrotoxicity. In overweight and obese adults, a paucity of data exists regarding the incidence and predictors of such toxicity. A retrospective nested case-control study was performed over 35 months for patients receiving intravenous colistin for ≥ 72 ...
Váradi Linda - - 2012
Several novel fluorogenic N-aminoacylnaphthyridine substrates were synthesized in good yield and tested for their ability to detect pathogenic bacteria in agar-based cell culture. Simple 2-N-(β-alanyl)amino-5,7-dialkylnaphthyridine substrates were selectively hydrolysed by β-alanylaminopeptidase expressing bacteria, but were subject to diffusion in the agar medium. Diffusion was reduced in the 2-N-(β-alanyl)amino-7-alkylnaphthyridine substrates with ...
Hengzhuang Wang - - 2012
Many Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are sensitive to antibiotics in susceptibility testing, but eradication of the infection is difficult. The main reason is the biofilm formation in the airways of patients with CF. The pharmacokinetics (PKs) and pharmacodynamics (PDs) of antimicrobials can ...
Arnold Heather M - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Adjunctive aerosolized antibiotics (AAA) have been recommended in the setting of gram-negative ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), but little is known about their influence on clinical outcomes. Our objective was to assess outcomes associated with AAA for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) VAP. METHODS: A retrospective, ...
Córdova Ezequiel - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kpn-KPC) is an emerging pathogen, with a high capacity of nosocomial spread. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a nosocomial outbreak of Kpn-KPC in Buenos Aires, Argentina. METHODS: Prospective and descriptive study. We recorded clinical and epidemiological characteristics ...
Jacquier Herve - - 2012
In this prospective multicentric study, we assessed the in vitro antimicrobial activity of carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem), tigecycline, and colistin against 166 unusual nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB) clinical isolates collected from nine French hospitals during a 6-month period (from December 1, 2008, to May 31, 2009). All NF-GNB isolates ...
de Jong E - - 2012
Many laboratories use enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). More recently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnosis has been described as a sensitive test. Real-time PCR for the detection of C. difficile toxin A and B genes was evaluated. A prospective evaluation was performed on stool ...
Antoniu Sabina Antonela - - 2012
Lower respiratory tract infections, due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Acinetobacter baumannii, are frequently encountered in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) or in patients developing nosocomial pneumonias. Both of these conditions bear a high mortality risk and aggressive antibiotic therapy is necessary. Inhaled antibiotics might represent an effective therapeutic approach for ...
Dünser Martin W MW Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and General Critical Care Medicine, Salzburg General Hospital and Paracelsus Private Medical University, Müllner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg, Austria. - - 2012
To provide clinicians practicing in resource-limited settings with a framework to improve the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric and adult patients with sepsis. The medical literature on sepsis management was reviewed. Specific attention was paid to identify clinical evidence on sepsis management from resource-limited settings. Recommendations are grouped into acute ...
Conlon J Michael - - 2012
The emergence of Acinetobacter sp. strains resistant to all antibacterial agents including colistin necessitates the development of new types of antimicrobial agents. Six cationic α-helical frog skin-derived peptides (CPF-AM1, PGLa-AM1, B2RP-ERa, [E4K]alyteserin-1c, [D4K]B2RP and [G4K]XT-7) were selected for this study on the basis of potent growth-inhibitory activity against Gram-negative bacteria ...
Djeribi Ryad - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The formation of bacterial biofilms on urinary catheters is a leading cause of urinary tract infections in intensive care units. Cytobacteriological examination of urine from patients is often misleading, due to the formation of these biofilms. Therefore, characterizing these biofilms and identifying the bacterial species residing on the surface ...
Richter A - - 2012
Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) have been isolated from a number of livestock species and persons involved in animal production. We investigated the prevalence of LA-MRSA in fattening turkeys and people living on farms that house fattening turkeys. Eighteen (90%) of 20 investigated flocks were positive for MRSA, and on ...
Hardikar Pallavi S PS Bajaj Diabetology Research Centre, King Edward Memorial Hospital Research Centre, Pune, - - 2012
To examine the influence of glycemic and nonglycemic parameters on HbA(1c) concentrations in young adults, the majority of whom had normal glucose tolerance. We compared the diagnosis of normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, and diabetes between a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; World Health Organization 2006 criteria) and HbA(1c) concentrations ...
Ben-Ami Ronen - - 2012
Recent exposure to azoles is an important risk factor for infection with fluconazole-resistant Candida spp., but little is known about the role of antibacterial drug exposure in the emergence of drug-resistant Candida. We did a prospective nationwide surveillance study of candidemia in Israel and analyzed the propensity score-adjusted association between ...
Agersø Yvonne - - 2012
Abstract The objective of this research was to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) population distributions for colistin for Salmonella on subtype level. Furthermore, we wanted to determine if differences in MIC for colistin could be explained by mutations in pmrA or pmrB encoding proteins involved in processes that influence the ...
Hamzeh Abdul Rezzak - - 2012
This study describes and analyzes Acinetobacter baumannii antibiotic susceptibly profile in Aleppo, Syria, thus providing vital information for guiding treatment of A baumannii infections. Two hundred sixty nonrepetitive A baumannii isolates were studied over 3.5 years. Resistance rates are at the higher end of globally reported levels. Newer cephalosporins and ...
Werarak Peerawong - - 2012
Nosocomial pneumonia (NP) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the common causative pathogens in NP. The prevalence of multi-drug resistance in A. baumannii has been increasing. The information on clinical features and clinical courses of A. baumannii NP in Thai ...
Fujiwara Masasuke - - 2012
We investigated the susceptibility to antibacterial agents of 334 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from medical facilities in Gifu and Aichi prefectures from May to September 2008. For the beta-lactams, meropenem (MEPM) and doripenem (DRPM) gave the lowest MIC50 at 0.5 microg/mL, and tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC) gave the highest susceptible rate ...
Matsunaga Naohisa - - 2012
Acinetobacter species are aerobic, glucose non-fermenting gram-negative rods, and ubiquitous in the environment. Acinetobacter spp. can survive for months on dry surfaces. Acinetobacter spp. have been grown from skin, pharynx, sputum, urine and feces. The most common Acinetobacter infection is pneumonia. According to Japan Nosocomial Infection Surveillance, 0.34% of the ...
Nagashima Goro - - 2012
We report a case of post-neurosurgical meningitis, subdural empyema, and cerebral abscess caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB) poorly susceptible to colistin. A 49-year-old man was transferred to our hospital after surgical treatment for putaminal hemorrhage in a foreign country hospital. Several examinations revealed surgical site infection (SSI). From cerebro-spinal ...
Higgins Paul G - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: The activity of BAL30072 was compared with that of anti-Acinetobacter reference drugs against meropenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii isolates associated with up-regulation of the intrinsic OXA-51-like enzyme or an acquired OXA. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was investigated by broth microdilution of 310 non-duplicate, meropenem-non-susceptible A. baumannii isolates to BAL30072, amikacin ampicillin/sulbactam, ...
Medell Manuel - - 2012
This observational study described the characterization of bacteria isolated from the lower respiratory tract of ventilated patients hospitalized in intensive care units. The demonstration of isolated microorganism resistance to antibiotics and a time-trend analysis of infection comparing a 48-month period were also other objectives. Semi-quantitative assays of 1254 samples taken ...
Dumani Aysin A DDS PhD. Assistant Professor, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, University of Cukurova, Faculty of Dentistry, Adana, - - 2012
The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial activity of 4 antibiotic agents (for E.faecalis) and 4 antifungal agents (for C.albicans) by agar dilution method. Additionally, modified strip diffusion method was used for detection of in vitro antimicrobial activities of 5% NaOCl, 2.5% NaOCl, 17% EDTA and ...
Kullar Ravina - - 2012
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical outcomes and costs in patients treated with the new vancomycin guidelines recommending goal serum trough concentrations of 15-20 mg/L versus patients treated with vancomycin doses targeting trough concentrations 5-20 mg/L prior to the new guidelines. DESIGN: Retrospective quasi-experimental study. SETTING: Urban level I trauma center. PATIENTS: A ...
McGann Patrick - - 2012
In response to global concerns over the spread of the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene 1, bla(NDM-1), a monthly surveillance program was initiated in September 2010. All carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative strains forwarded to our facility are screened for this gene. To date, 321 carbapenem-resistant isolates, encompassing 11 bacterial species, have been tested. ...
Bozkurt-Guzel Cagla - - 2012
Background: The rise in the rates of antibiotic resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is concerning and underscores the need for the development of novel compounds. Among them CSA-13, a cationic steroid molecule, mimics the activity of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. Methods: MICs and MBCs were ...
John Teny Mathew - - 2012
Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a systemic disorder with a high mortality, commonly associated with rheumatological conditions, but which can also occur as a complication of several infections. Here we present a case of MAS following Acinetobacter baumannii sepsis. Early institution of therapy with prednisolone, cyclosporine, colistin, and polymyxin resulted ...
Lugsomya Kittitat - - 2012
Aims:  The aim of this study was to develop a modified selective medium to improve the recovery rate of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and other clinically significant intestinal spirochaetes from porcine faeces. Methods and Results:  The susceptibility of five Brachyspira spp. type strains and five Thai field isolates of B. hyodysenteriae to ...
Brigante Gioconda - - 2012
Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative organism reported worldwide as a cause of health care associated infections, particularly in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). The aim of the study was to describe the emergence and spread of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) isolates in hospitalized patients. From March to November 2009, multidrug-resistant CRAB ...
Pardon Bart - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: To document and quantify drug use in white veal calves, an intensive livestock production system where multidrug resistance is abundantly present. METHODS: Drug consumption data were prospectively collected on 15 white veal production cohorts (n = 5853 calves) in Belgium (2007-09). Treatment incidences (TIs) based on animal defined daily dose (ADD), ...
Chiang Wen-Chi - - 2012
Biofilms are reported to be inherently refractory towards antimicrobial attack and therefore cause problems in industrial and medical settings. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms contain subpopulations that exhibit high metabolic activity and subpopulations that exhibit low metabolic activity. We have found that membrane targeting antimicrobials such as colistin, EDTA, SDS, and chlorhexidine ...
Qureshi Zubair A - - 2012
Klebsiella pneumoniae producing Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) has been associated with serious infections and high mortality. The optimal antimicrobial therapy for infection due to KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is not well established. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the clinical outcome of patients with bacteremia caused by KPC-producing K. ...
Sheng J-F - - 2012
Enterobacter amnigenus (EA76) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP76) isolates with multidrug-resistant (MDR) patterns were identified from the same patient in the neurosurgery department of our hospital. An outbreak of MDR K. pneumoniae had also occurred in this department. To characterize the resistance mechanism and molecular epidemiology of these isolates, sequential experiments ...
Bandyopadhyay Samiran - - 2012
Of 273 samples (rectal swab) collected from free-ranging yaks of Tawang district, Arunachal Pradesh, 42 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), six enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and 27 enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strains were isolated. All the STEC and EPEC strains were further investigated for respective stx variants (for STEC only) ...
Hedberg Maria E - - 2012
Two novel obligately anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, saccharolytic and non-proteolytic spore-forming bacilli (strains CD3:22(T) and N1(T)) are described. Strain CD3:22(T) was isolated from a biopsy of the small intestine of a child with coeliac disease, and strain N1(T) from the saliva of a healthy young man. The cells of both strains were ...
Miyasaki Yoko Y Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA. - - 2012
Various combinations of antibiotics are reported to show synergy in treating nosocomial infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii). Here, we studied hospital-acquired outbreak strains of MDR A. baumannii to evaluate optimal combinations of antibiotics. One hundred and twenty-one strains were grouped into one major and one minor clonal ...
Lee Ji-Young - - 2012
Emergence of polymyxin resistance in carbapenem-resistant isolates is a great concern in clinical settings because it may mean the end of treatment options against Gram-negative bacterial infections. Polymyxin-nonsusceptible and -susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates resistant to carbapenems and harboring bla(IMP-6) were alternatively isolated from a patient. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing, ...
Deveci Aydin - - 2012
Treatment of multidrug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii infections causes some problems as a result of possessing various antibacterial resistance mechanisms against available antibiotics. Combination of antibiotics, acting by different mechanisms, is used for the treatment of MDR bacterial infections. It is an important factor to determine synergy or antagonism between ...
Zagorianou A - - 2012
We report 570 carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CPKP) clinical isolates in a 1,040-bed Greek tertiary hospital during 2004 to 2010. The first CPKP (VIM-producing) was isolated in September 2004. Despite initial containment, VIM producers have become endemic since 2006. KPC-producing K. pneumoniae was first isolated in August 2007 from a patient ...
Oomen Karin P Q - - 2012
Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease, characterized by accumulation of thickened mucous secretions in exocrine glands. Although the major clinical manifestations of the disease are pancreatic and pulmonary disease, the majority of cystic fibrosis patients will develop sinonasal manifestations as well. This paper outlines the etiology, evaluation, and management of ...
Al-Agamy Mohamed H - - 2012
We investigated the extended-spectrum (ESBLs) and metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Saudi Arabia. Disc susceptibility testing was performed on 200 P. aeruginosa isolates collected during 2010 at the Armed Forces Hospital in Riyadh, with MIC testing and phenotypic screening for ESBLs and MBLs carried out on those found ...
Schultsz Constance - - 2012
Antimicrobial resistance is increasing worldwide, and pathogenic microorganisms that are resistant to all available antimicrobial agents are increasingly reported. Emerging plasmid-encoded extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases are increasingly reported worldwide. Carbapenemase production encoded by genes located on mobile genetic elements is typically accompanied by genes encoding resistance to other drug ...
Kaakoush Nadeem Omar - - 2012
Over the last decade Campylobacter concisus, a highly fastidious member of the Campylobacter genus has been described as an emergent pathogen of the human intestinal tract. Historically, C. concisus was associated with the human oral cavity and has been linked with periodontal lesions, including gingivitis and periodontitis, although currently its ...
Ghafur A - - 2012
Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide threat, with increasing prevalence in many countries. Restricted usage of higher end antibiotics, especially carbapenem is of great importance in tackling these super bugs. Purpose of this retrospective study was to analyse the impact of antibiotic stewardship activities on the prevalence of carbapenem ...
Elouennass M - - 2012
Objective. To study the sensitivity level of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae to Carbapenems (Imipenem, Ertapenem) marketed in Morocco and discusses the place of Ertapenem in the treatment of extended spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study of 110 extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Isolates obtained from blood cultures, superficial and deep ...
Sacha Paweł - - 2012
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the aacA4 gene in a population of multidrug resistant strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from bronchial secretions obtained from the Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU). Twelve MDR isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility and the presence of the aacA4 gene. ...
Campos Ana Claudia Camargo - - 2012
Objective. To verify the relationship between vaginal pH and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and to measure cytokine levels in endocervical secretions of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) or HPV. Methods. 173 women (16-48 years old) were enrolled and divided into groups: BV, HPV, and controls. Microbiological culture and vaginal pH ...
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