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Gaffar A - - 1995
Triclosan (2,4,4',-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenylether) is a well-known and widely used nonionic antibacterial agent which has recently been introduced in toothpastes and mouthrinses. The efficacy of triclosan-containing toothpaste and mouthrinse to reduce both plaque and gingivitis in long-term clinical trials has been well documented. Until recently, it was generally assumed that triclosan's effect ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 549
Chen Xijuan X Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wenhua Road 72, 110016 Shenyang, China; Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsvej 49, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark; Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgsvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, - - 2014
Aerobic degradation experiments of Triclosan were performed in activated sludge to identify possible transformation products for this compound. During 7days, the formation of biotransformation products such as 2,4-Dichlorophenol, 4-Chlorocatechol, 5-Hydroxy-Triclosan and other Monohydroxy-Triclosan derivatives as well as Dihydroxy-Triclosan-derivatives were observed. The structure of 5-Hydroxy-Triclosan was elucidated by NMR data for ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 549
Webber Mark A MA Antimicrobial Agents Research Group, Division of Immunity and Infection, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B152TT, UK. - - 2008
The aim of this study was to determine and compare the proteomes of three triclosan-resistant mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in order to identify proteins involved in triclosan resistance. The proteomes of three distinct but isogenic triclosan-resistant mutants were determined using two-dimensional liquid chromatography mass separation. Bioinformatics was then ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 548
Delorenzo M E - - 2008
Triclosan, a commonly used antimicrobial compound, has been measured in aquatic systems worldwide. This study exposed marine species to triclosan to examine effects primarily on survival and to investigate the formation of the degradation product, methyl-triclosan, in the estuarine environment. Acute toxicity was assessed using the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 547
Greenman J - - 1996
Triclosan monophosphate is a phosphorylated derivative of the antimicrobial agent, triclosan. In comparison with triclosan, it is highly soluble in aqueous solutions. It is hypothesized that, within the oral environment, triclosan monophosphate (which may be devoid of antimicrobial activity) will be hydrolyzed into triclosan by the action of microbial phosphatases. ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 546
Kjaerheim V - - 1994
The aim of this study was to investigate the plaque-inhibiting effect of triclosan. It is known that triclosan and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have a marked inhibitory effect. However, since SLS has a plaque-reducing effect in itself, the relative importance of triclosan and the surfactant is undecided. Twelve dental students ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 545
Aranami Kazushi - - 2007
A 12-days photolysis experiment of triclosan, a widely used bactericide, was performed in freshwater and seawater under a low intensity artificial white light source. Photodegradation of triclosan was observed in both the freshwater and seawater samples. Assuming a first-order reaction, half-lives of triclosan in the freshwater and seawater were approximately ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 542
Wade W G - - 1992
The antibacterial activity of 4 triclosan-containing toothpastes was compared to a conventional fluoride dentifrice and triclosan and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), both singly and in combination. A panel of 17 bacteria was tested by an agar dilution method. At concentrations typical of those found in toothpastes, triclosan and SLS displayed ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 541
Son Hyun-Seok - - 2009
The degradations of triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol), a potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, were compared in TiO2-only in the dark condition, photolysis, and TiO2 photocatalysis with a UV-A lamp. TiO2 photocatalysis more effectively degraded and mineralized triclosan compared to TiO2-only and photolysis conditions. While triclosan removed only 30% by TiO2-only condition within 20 ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 537
Kjaerheim V - - 1994
A double-blind cross-over clinical study was performed on eight volunteers to determine the plaque-inhibiting effect of different triclosan- and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-containing mouthrinses. An attempt was also made to locate the binding site(s) of triclosan in the oral cavity. After the volunteers rinsed for four days with solutions of ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 537
Hernández Alvaro - - 2011
The wide utilization of biocides poses a concern on the impact of these compounds on natural bacterial populations. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that biocides can select, at least in laboratory experiments, antibiotic resistant bacteria. This situation has raised concerns, not just on scientists and clinicians, but also on regulatory ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 537
Lenahan Mary - - 2013
Triclosan is an active agent that is commonly found in biocide formulations which are used by the food industry to control microbial contamination. The aim of this study was to use microarray analysis to compare gene expression between a triclosan-susceptible Escherichia coli O157:H19 isolate (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] 6.25 μg/ml) and ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 537
Wang Jiankang - - 2004
This research investigated an electrochemical method for inactivating contaminated stockpiles of the biocidal agent, triclosan. The goal of the electrolysis was to produce products that were amenable to treatment in conventional activated sludge treatment systems. Triclosan oxidation in electrochemical cells with boron doped diamond (BDD) film anodes was investigated in ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 533
Stewart M J - - 1999
The enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR) is involved in bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis and is the target of the antibacterial diazaborine compounds and the front-line antituberculosis drug isoniazid. Recent studies suggest that ENR is also the target for the broad-spectrum biocide triclosan. The 1.75 A crystal structure of EnvM, the ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 533
Thimour-Bergström Linda - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: The incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after open vein harvesting in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients ranges in different studies between 2 and 20%. Triclosan is an antibacterial substance that reduces the growth of bacteria by inhibiting fatty acid synthesis. We hypothesized that wound closure with triclosan-coated ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 532
Stickler David J - - 2008
Clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis causing catheter encrustation and blockage are susceptible to the biocide triclosan (MICs of 0.2 mg/liter). Studies with laboratory models of the bladder have demonstrated that the inflation of catheter retention balloons with triclosan solutions rather than water results in the diffusion of triclosan from the ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 531
Villalaín J - - 2001
Triclosan is a broad-spectrum hydrophobic antibacterial agent used in dermatological preparations and oral hygiene products. To gain further insight into the mode of action of Triclosan we examined its effects on membranes by performing leakage titrations of different oral bacteria and studying its interaction with model membranes through the use ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 531
Lygre Henning - - 2003
The possibility that triclosan and PVM/MA (polyvinylmethyl ether/maleic acid) copolymer, additives to dentrifrices, could interact with eukaryotic membrane lipids was studied by two methods: first, by determining the pressure/molecular area isotherms at 37 degrees C of glycerophospholipid monolayers, using the Langmuir technique; and second, by phase-transition parameters in liposomes of ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 531
Paul Kimberly S - - 2004
Trypanosoma brucei genes encoding putative fatty acid synthesis enzymes are homologous to those encoding type II enzymes found in bacteria and organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria. It was therefore not surprising that triclosan, an inhibitor of type II enoyl-acyl carrier protein (enoyl-ACP) reductase, killed both procyclic forms and bloodstream ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 529
Sullivan A - - 2003
The aims of the study were to determine the in vitro sensitivity of triclosan against viridans streptococci and the impact of triclosan on the normal oral microflora. Nine subjects used a triclosan-containing toothpaste for 2 weeks. Saliva samples were collected on days 0 and 14 and were analyzed quantitatively. The ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 527
Liu Feng - - 2009
Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent widely used in many contemporary consumer and health care products. This study assayed phytotoxicity of triclosan using plant growth tests, soil microbial activity using soil respiration and phosphatase activity tests and soil microbial functional diversity using the Biolog ECO plates. The results showed that triclosan ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 527
Cottell A - - 2009
There is no clear consensus regarding the effect of biocide tolerance on antibiotic susceptibility. In this work, triclosan-tolerant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter johnsonii were compared with sensitive strains in order to ascertain their susceptibility to a range of antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of triclosan were ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 527
Toms Leisa-Maree L - - 2011
Triclosan is a chlorinated phenol ether that has been in widespread use as a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent for four decades. When compared to the limited international data available on human body burden of triclosan, results from a pooled blood study suggested that triclosan concentrations in Australia were a factor two ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 526
Saunders K A - - 2000
The effects of triclosan and its phosphorylated derivative, triclosan monophosphate were studied using a continuous culture microcosm model. Two conditions were simulated, a caries-like state (pH 5.5 with artificial saliva plus glucose as growth medium) and a periodontal disease-like state (pH 7.5 with BHI plus yeast extract, haemin and cysteine ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 526
Allmyr Mats - - 2006
The bactericide triclosan is commonly used in e.g. plastics, textiles and health care products. In vitro studies on rat and human biological systems indicate that triclosan might exert adverse effects in humans. Triclosan has previously been found in human plasma and milk, but neither the primary source of human exposure ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 524
Lindström Anton - - 2002
The bactericide triclosan and methyl triclosan, an environmental transformation product thereof, were detected in lakes and in a river in Switzerland at concentrations of up to 74 and 2 ng L(-1), respectively. Both compounds were emitted via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), with methyl triclosan probably being formed by biological methylation. ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 524
Krishnan Kannan - - 2010
Recent efforts worldwide have resulted in a growing database of measured concentrations of chemicals in blood and urine samples taken from the general population. However, few tools exist to assist in the interpretation of the measured values in a health risk context. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are defined as the concentration ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 522
Zurita Raül - - 2006
Copolymerization of lactide, epsilon-caprolactone, and trimethylene carbonate is performed. The synthesis is focused on obtaining materials with adequate properties for application as a suture coating that could contain an antimicrobial agent like triclosan. An amorphous character, a low glass transition temperature, a moderate susceptibility to degradation, and a hydrophobic nature ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 521
Thompson A - - 2005
This work examines the variation in removal efficiency of triclosan in wastewater treatment works in the United Kingdom between November 2003 and April 2004. Concentrations of triclosan were measured at set points within three different types of wastewater treatment works: rotating biological contactors, trickling filters, and activated sludge. Overall removal ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 520
Allmyr Mats - - 2008
The bactericide triclosan has found wide-spread use in e.g. soaps, deodorants and toothpastes. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that triclosan might exert adverse effects in humans. Triclosan has previously been shown to be present in human plasma and milk at concentrations that are well correlated to the ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 520
Zuckerbraun H L - - 1998
The in vitro cytotoxicology of triclosan, the active ingredient in some mouthrinses and dentifrices used in the prevention and treatment of gingivitis and plaque, was studied using the Smulow-Glickman (S-G) human gingival epithelial cell line. The 24 h midpoint cytotoxicity value was 0.05-0.06 mM triclosan as assessed with the neutral ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 520
Wignall Geoffrey R - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent currently used in numerous products including surgical scrubs and ureteral stents. Unfortunately, studies have shown triclosan resistance among several bacterial species. Our objective was to characterize resistance patterns of common uropathogens to triclosan and determine whether triclosan exposure would alter their susceptibility to ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 520
Clayborn A B - - 2011
The opportunistic bacterium Pasteurella multocida is extremely susceptible to the hydrophobic biocide triclosan by virtue of its markedly permeable outer membrane, while the nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is intrinsically resistant to levels far exceeding the triclosan aqueous solubility limit. Widespread incorporation of triclosan in health and personal care products has ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 517
Svenningsen Hanne - - 2011
Effects of the common antibacterial agent triclosan on microbial communities and degradation of domestic xenobiotics were studied in simulated sewage-drain-field soil. Cultivable microbial populations decreased 22-fold in the presence of 4 mg kg(-1) of triclosan, and triclosan-resistant Pseudomonas strains were strongly enriched. Exposure to triclosan also changed the general metabolic profile (Ecoplate ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 516
Honkisz Ewelina - - 2012
Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent frequently used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. We analyzed triclosan for its action on placental secretion of progesterone, estradiol and human chorionic gonadotropin in vitro in the JEG-3 cells. We also investigated its action on cell viability, proliferation and apoptosis. The JEG-3 cells were ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 516
Gilbert R J - - 1987
Oral delivery and retention of zinc and triclosan were measured in man after use of an anti-plaque dentifrice containing these antibacterial agents. Triclosan (25% of the dose) and zinc (24%) were retained in the mouth immediately after toothbrushing and a single mouthrinse. Salivary concentrations fell from 7.5 micrograms g-1 (triclosan) ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 516
Yu Byung Jo - - 2012
Triclosan is a widely used biocide effective against different microorganisms. At bactericidal concentrations, triclosan appears to affect multiple targets, while at bacteriostatic concentrations, triclosan targets FabI. The site-specific antibiotic-like mode-of-action and a widespread use of triclosan in household products claimed to possibly induce cross-resistance to other antibiotics. Thus, we set ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 515
Cullinan Mary P - - 2011
The long term effects of usage of triclosan-containing toothpaste on thyroid function are currently unknown. Triclosan is structurally similar to thyroid hormones and reductions in serum thyroid hormone levels have been observed in animal studies following oral administration of triclosan. Therefore, an assessment of thyroid function over 4years was undertaken ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 514
Birosová Lucia - - 2009
The possible association between the use of triclosan and the development of antibiotic resistance was examined in triclosan-resistant mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. These mutants were obtained from a sensitive parental strain and from ciprofloxacin-resistant isogenic strains using spontaneous mutagenesis or selection after one short exposure or continuous exposure ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 512
Kraivaphan Petcharat - - 2009
This investigation studied triclosan retention and plaque viability in a group of healthy human subjects from Bangkok, Thailand, 12 hours after using a mouthrinse containing a triclosan/PVM/MA copolymer system. The results show the retained triclosan in the dental plaque was with in or higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 512
Brading M G - - 2004
To discuss the role of Triclosan in dentifrice systems and demonstrate the enhanced efficacy of Triclosan in calcium carbonate-based systems when the level of the antimicrobial agent is raised from 0.2% to 0.3%. Triclosan is the most commonly used antimicrobial agent in oral care products, being compatible with a wide ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 511
Wang Shujuan - - 2013
Triclosan that is widely used as antimicrobial agent has been detected as contaminant in various aquatic environments. In this work, removal and biodegradation of triclosan in water by using a ubiquitous green alga, Chlorella pyrenoidosa was investigated. When C. pyrenoidosa was exposed to a series concentration of triclosan from 100 ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 511
Gangadharan Puthiya Veetil Prajeesh - - 2012
Triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxyl diphenyl ether) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent present in a number of house hold consumables. Aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures tolerating triclosan were developed and 77 bacterial strains tolerating triclosan at different levels were isolated from different inoculum sources. Biodegradation of triclosan under aerobic, anoxic (denitrifying ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 511
Orvos David R - - 2002
The aquatic toxicity of triclosan (TCS), a chlorinated biphenyl ether used as an antimicrobial in consumer products, was studied with activated-sludge microorganisms, algae, invertebrates, and fish. Triclosan, a compound used for inhibiting microbial growth, was not toxic to wastewater microorganisms at concentrations less than aqueous solubility. The 48-h Daphnia magna ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 510
Schmid Molly B - - 2004
Triclosan MIC determination showed that recent Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates (n = 100) were highly susceptible to triclosan, with a 50% minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC(50)) of 0.12 microg/ml and a MIC(90) of 0.25 microg/ml. Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates (n = 96) were less susceptible, with a MIC(50) of 0.12 microg/ml and ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 508
McNamara Patrick J - - 2014
Triclosan is a widespread antimicrobial agent that accumulates in anaerobic digesters used to treat the residual solids generated at municipal wastewater treatment plants; there is very little information, however, about how triclosan impacts microbial communities in anaerobic digesters. We investigated how triclosan impacts the community structure, function and antimicrobial resistance ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 507
Ellingsen J E - - 1994
It has previously been shown that a toothpaste which contains triclosan and polydimethylsiloxane (silicone oil) improved gingival health in a test panel with established gingivitis more markedly than usually observed when testing commercial triclosan-containing toothpastes. In the present study the mode of action of combinations of silicone oil and triclosan ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 506
Sharma Shailendra Kumar - - 2007
We have investigated the mechanism of inhibition of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase of Plasmodium falciparum (PfENR) by triclosan in the presence of a few important catechins and related plant polyphenols. The examined flavonoids inhibited PfENR reversibly with Ki values in the nanomolar range, EGCG being the best with 79 +/- ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 505
Meade M J - - 2001
Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that has been incorporated into many household and medical products. Bacteria with high levels of triclosan resistance were isolated from compost, water, and soil samples. Two of these bacteria, Pseudomonas putida TriRY and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans TR1, were able to use triclosan as ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 505
Kjaerheim V - - 1995
Previous studies indicate that triclosan reduces the pain and other symptoms after chemically-induced inflammation in the oral mucosa and skin when sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is used as an irritant. The aim of the present study was to examine whether triclosan has an effect on the inflammation in human skin ...
Relevancy Score: Relevancy Score: 505
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