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List of Search Fields
Field Abbreviation Field Name Description
Example Search
1AU First Author The first personal author name listed for a record.
  • Smith [1AU]
  • (J Smith) [1AU]
  • (Smith John) [1AU]
  • "John Smith"[1AU]
AB Abstract Text Text included in the  "abstract" and "other abstract" (if supplied) fields of a record. For PubMed articles, English language abstracts are taken directly from the published article. If an article does not have a published abstract, PubMed does not create one.
  • "skin cancer" [AB]
  • (skin OR cancer) [AB]
AD Affiliation The institutional affiliation and address (including e-mail address) of the first author of the article as it appears in the journal. This field can be used to search for work done at specific institutions.
  • (cleveland clinic) [AD]
  • mayo [AD]
ADP Article Date Published This is typically a date the article was published in electronic format, often times before the Journal Date Published.
  • 2009/1/30[ADP]
  • 2001/3:2009/3[ADP]
  • 2009[ADP]
ALL All Fields Searches against all search fields.  NOTE: This is the default search field if no field is specified.
  • "skin cancer"
  • microbiology OR (bacteria AND microbial)
  • device [ALL]
AU Author Searches all authors for an article.  To search just the first author of a record, use [1AU].  Note: The [AU] behaves exactly the same as the [FAU] field.
  • Smith [AU]
  • (J Smith) [AU]
  • (Smith John) [AU]
  • "John Smith"[AU]
CN Corporate Author The corporate or collective authorship of an article. Corporate names display exactly as they appear in the journal.
  • CDC [CN]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention" [CN]
DP Publication Date The date that the article was published.
  • 2007/1/31[DP]
  • 2001/3:2001/10[DP]
  • 2009[DP]
DTRE Date Revised The date a change was last made to a record as a result of NLM's individual or global maintenance. NOTE: This date is supplied by the NLM and they inform users not to "depend on [the] initial presence of [this date] or [a] change to [this date's] value to indicate that a record has been maintained."
  • 2001/3/23[DTRE]
  • 2001/3:2001/10[DTRE]
  • 2009[DTRE]
EDP Earlier Date Published This is the earlier of the Print Publication Date or the Electronic Publication Date.
  • 2009/1/15[EDP]
  • 2001/3:2009/3[EDP]
  • 2009[EDP]
FAU Full Author Name Searches all authors for each record.  To search just the first author of a record, use [1AU].  Note: The [FAU] field behaves exactly the same as the [AU] field.
  • Smith [FAU]
  • (J Smith) [FAU]
  • (Smith John) [FAU]
  • "John Smith" [FAU]
FIR Investigator/Collaborator Name The full investigator or collaborator name for articles, if available.
  • "harry james" [FIR]
  • (h james) [FIR]
GR Grant Number Research grant numbers, contract numbers, or both that designate financial support by any agency of the US PHS (Public Health Service), several United Kingdom granting agencies and other funding sources.
  • 5R01CA101211-03 [GR]
IP Issue The number of the journal issue in which the article was published.
  • 12 [IP]
JIDP Journal Date Published This is the date the document appeared in a printed journal.
  • 2009/1/15[JIDP]
  • 2001/3:2009/3[JIDP]
  • 2009[JIDP]
IR Investigator/Collaborator Name Names of principal investigator(s) or collaborators who contributed to the research.
  • Smith [IR]
  • (J Smith) [IR]
  • (Smith John) [IR]
  • "John Smith" [IR]
JID NLM Unique Identifier The alpha-numeric identifier for the cited journal that was assigned by NLM's Integrated Library System.
  • 0375267 [jid].
LA Language The language in which the article was published. Note: Many non-English articles have English language abstracts. You can either enter the language or enter just the first three characters of most languages, e.g., chi [la] retrieves the same as chinese [la]. The most notable exception is jpn [la] for Japanese.
  • eng [LA]
  • english [LA]
  • chi [LA]
  • chinese [LA]
LASTAU Last Author The last personal author name in a citation.
  • Smith [LASTAU]
  • (J Smith) [LASTAU]
  • (Smith John) [LASTAU]
  • "John Smith" [LASTAU]
LID Location ID The DOI or publisher ID that serves the role of pagination to locate an online article.
  •  "s0212 16112008000100001" [LID]
MAJR MeSH Major Topic A MeSH term that is one of the main topics discussed in the article.
  •  Neuropsychology [MAJR]
MH MeSH Terms All MeSH terms related to the article.
  • "Blood Pressure" [MH]
  • (epidemiology AND humans) [MH]
NM Substance Name The name of a chemical discussed in the article.
  •  tiadenol [NM]
OT Other Term Mostly non-MeSH subject terms (keywords), including NASA Space Flight Mission, assigned by an organization other than NLM.
  • cancer [OT]
  • "APEX Project" [OT]
OWNER Owner Acronym that identifies the organization that supplied the citation data.
  •  NASA [OWNER]
PG Pagination Enter only the first page number on wihch the article appears. The citation will display the full pagination of the article but this field is searchable using only the first page number.
  • "1, 4" [PG]
  • 304 [PG]
  • "E101-6" [PG]
PL Place of Publication Indicates the cited journal's country of publication. Geographic Place of Publication regions are not searchable. In order to retrieve records for all countries in a region (e.g., North America) it is necessary to OR together the countries of interest. Note: This field IS included in All Fields or Text Word retrieval.
  •  nigeria [PL]
  • ("United States" OR US*) [PL]
PMID Unique ID PubMed Unique Identifier PMID.
  •  12343555[PMID]
PS Personal Name as Subject Use this search field tag to limit retrieval to where the name is the subject of the article
  • Smith [LASTAU]
  • (J Smith) [LASTAU]
  • (Smith John) [LASTAU]
  • "John Smith" [LASTAU]
PT Publication Type Describes the type of material the article represents (e.g., Review, Clinical Trial, Retracted Publication, Letter.)
  • Addresses [PT]
RN EC/RN Number Number assigned by the Enzyme Commission (EC) to designate a particular enzyme or by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) for Registry Numbers
  • "69-93-2" [RN]
  • "3.1.1.34" [RN]
  • "3.1.1.34" [RN]
SB Subset Method of restricting retrieval by topic, citation status and journal/citation subsets.
  • AIDS [SB]
SFM Space Flight Mission The Space Flight Mission identifier for the record.
  • "APEX Project" [SFM]
SH MeSH Subheadings MeSH terms flagged as subheadings in the record.
  • "Blood Pressure" [SH]
  • (epidemiology AND humans) [SH]
SI Secondary Source ID The SI field identifies secondary source databanks and accession numbers, e.g., GenBank, GEO, PubChem, ClinicalTrials.gov, ISRCTN. The field is composed of the source followed by a slash followed by an accession number and can be searched with one or both components.
  • genbank [si]
  • AF001892 [si]
  • genbank/AF001892 [si]. | |
TA Journal Title The journal title abbreviation, full journal title, or ISSN number.
  • J Biol Chem
  • Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • 0021-9258 | |
TI Title Words and numbers included in the title of a citation.
  • "The Kleine-Levin syndrome as a neuropsychiatric disorder: a case report" [TI]
TIAB Title/Abstract Words and numbers included in the title, abstract, and other abstract of a citation. English language abstracts are taken directly from the published article. If an article does not have a published abstract, PubMed does not create one.
  • AIDS [TIAB]
TT Transliterated Title Words and numbers in title originally published in a non-English language, in that language. Non-Roman alphabet language title are transliterated.
  • dystalnego [TT]
TW Text Words Searches against all search fields.  Note: This is the same as the [ALL] field.
  • (humans AND cancer) [TW]
VI Volume The number of the journal volume in which an article is published.
  • 1 [VI]
  • "49 Suppl 20" [VI]
Fields related to comments and correction
Field Abbreviation Field Name Description
Example Search
partialretractionin Partial Retraction In Cites the reference containing a partial retraction of the article; began use in 2007.
  • Surg. 2007 [partialretractionin]
partialretractionof Partial Retraction Of Cites the article being partially retracted; began use in 2007.
  • Organ Transplant. 2001 [partialretractionof]
republishedfrom Republished From Cites the original article subsequently corrected and republished; began use in 1987.
  • Med. 2009 [republishedfrom]
republishedin Republished In Cites the final, correct version of a corrected and republished article; began use in 1987.
  • Nutr. 2009 [republishedin]
retractionof Retraction Of Cites the article being retracted; began use in August 1984.
  • Med Assoc. 2008 [retractionof]
retractionin Retraction In Cites the reference containing a retraction of the article; began use in August 1984.
  • Chemphyschem. 2009 [retractionin]
updatein Update In Cites the reference containing an update to the article; began limited use in 2001.
  • Rev 2007 [updatein]
updateof Update Of Cites the article being updated; limited use; began limited use in 2001.
  • Rev 2007 [updateof]
summaryforpatientsin Summary For Patients In Cites the reference containing a patient summary article; began use in Nov. 2001
  • Ethn Dis. 2009 [summaryforpatientsin]
originalreportin Original Report In Cites a scientific article associated with a patient summary.
  • Ethn Dis. 2009 [originalreportin]
republishedin Republished In Cites the subsequent (and possibly abridged) version of a republished article; began use in 2006.
  • Dermatol Nurs. 2009 [republishedin]
republishedfrom Republished From Cites the first, originally published article; began use in 2006.
  • N Engl J Med. 2008 [republishedfrom]
commentin Comment In Cites the reference containing a comment about the article; began use with journal issues published in 1989.
  • Paediatr Respir Rev. 2008 [commentin]
commenton Comment On Cites the reference upon which the article comments; began use with journal issues published in 1989.
  • Paediatr Respir Rev. 2008 [commenton]
erretumin Erratum In Cites the reference containing a published erratum to the article; began use in 1987.
  • ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2008 [erretumin]
erratumfor Erratum For Cites the original article for which there is a published erratum.
  • ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2008 [erratumfor]