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Effects of periconceptional undernutrition and twinning on ovine pregnancy
Abstract/OtherAbstract :
Events around conception such as maternal undernutrition and twinning may have effects on offspring physiology and disease risk in adulthood. Periconceptional undernutrition alters offspring physiology and adult pathology without affecting birth size, while twinning affects birth size and physiology but with inconsistent effects on adult pathology. We investigated the effects of these two periconceptional events and their interaction on maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy and fetal growth, physiology and endocrinology in late gestation in sheep. Pre and/or postconception undernutrition resulted in increased uterine blood flow in late gestation, but no change in maternal blood volume. Preconception undernutrition alone resulted in a relatively large placenta with a small, slow-growing fetus in late gestation. In contrast, postconception undernutrition alone resulted in a fetus with rapid late-gestation growth that was maintained through a maternal fast. Fetuses of ewes undernourished throughout both periods were similar in growth rate and size to controls. Maternal fasting also demonstrated that plasma levels of C-type natriuretic peptide are acutely and independently regulated by nutrient supply in mother and fetus. Fetuses of ewes undernourished both pre- and postconception had increased glucose disposal following a glucose challenge. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis tests in these fetuses showed decreased pituitary adrenocorticotropin hormone response to direct stimulation but increased adrenal response to decreased cortisol negative feedback. Twin fetuses grew more slowly in late gestation than singletons. Twins also had a smaller insulin response to arginine and a greater insulin response to glucose, but periconceptional undernutrition abolished this difference. Twins had suppressed baseline hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and decreased adrenal sensitivity compared to singletons, but increased fetal pituitary adrenocorticotropin hormone response to direct stimulation and decreased cortisol negative feedback. These studies suggest that firstly, fetal size is a poor reflection of fetal growth trajectory, physiology and endocrinology. Secondly, pre- and postconception undernutrition affect late-gestation fetal growth in different ways, while undernutrition in both periods alters fetal endocrine status in late gestation. Thirdly, the biology of twin fetal development is fundamentally different from that of singletons, which may explain the inconsistency of the relationship between birth weight and adult disease risk in twins., Auckland Medical Research Foundation, Health Research Council of New Zealand
Authors :
Rumball, Christopher William Henry
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Publisher :  ResearchSpace@Auckland     Type :  -     Format :  -    
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Subject :
developmental origins of health and disease, sheep, pregnancy, fetal programming, nutrition, twins, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, glucose-insulin axis, fetal growth, Animal physiology-systems(270603), Preventative medicine(321206), Nutrition and dietetics(321205)
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Languages :  en    
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