Document Detail

A transmissible cytotoxic activity isolated from a patient with brain ischemia causes microglial cell activation and dysfunction.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17380379     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
1. Microglial cell activation occurs during brain injury, ischemia, and in several neurologic disorders. Recently, we isolated a transmissible cytotoxic activity (TCA) from the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with brain ischemia. Such a TCA, associated with one or more protein(s) that supposedly had undergone in vivo misfolding, causes apoptosis in vitro in different cell lines, including microglial cells. The TCA producing cells and the potential in vivo role of such cytotoxic activity remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the in vitro effects of TCA on microglial cell immune functions.2. The murine microglial cell line RR4 was exposed to TCA, and then its response was evaluated as: (a) phagocytosis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans; (b) secretory pattern; and (c) levels of p38 phosphorylation.3. Unlike mock-treated controls, microglial cells exposed to TCA showed an increase in phagocytic activity. Unexpectedly, their capability to kill the ingested fungi significantly diminished. Moreover, TCA-treated cells produced amounts of macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and nitric oxide significantly higher than mock-treated cells. Finally, phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was detected in TCA-treated but not in mock-treated controls as early as 30 min after treatment.4. Overall, these results indicate that TCA causes a rapid molecular response in microglial cells, by the time, leading to an intriguing effector and secretory dysfunction.
F Beretti; V Cenacchi; M Portolani; A Ardizzoni; E Blasi; C Cermelli
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2007-03-23
Journal Detail:
Title:  Cellular and molecular neurobiology     Volume:  27     ISSN:  0272-4340     ISO Abbreviation:  Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.     Publication Date:  2007 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-05-15     Completed Date:  2007-09-19     Revised Date:  2009-11-19    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8200709     Medline TA:  Cell Mol Neurobiol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  517-28     Citation Subset:  IM    
Dipartimento Integrato dei Servizi Diagnostici, di Laboratorio e di Medicina Legale, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 87, 41100 Modena, Italy.
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MeSH Terms
Brain Ischemia / pathology*
Cell Line
Cell Survival
Cytokines / metabolism
Cytotoxicity, Immunologic*
Formazans / pharmacology
Hypoxia, Brain / cerebrospinal fluid*
Microglia / drug effects*,  metabolism,  pathology*
Nitric Oxide / metabolism
Tetrazolium Salts / pharmacology
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Cytokines; 0/Formazans; 0/Tetrazolium Salts; 10102-43-9/Nitric Oxide; 23305-68-2/MTT formazan; EC Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases

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