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The tori of the mouth and ear: A review.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23959969     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
There is a great deal of literature regarding the tori of the mouth and ear. However, there is controversy regarding the etiology and prevalence of each. The torus palatinus is generally agreed to be the most common oral exostosis and is more frequently found in females. The torus mandibularis is also quite common, is more prevalent in males, and occurs bilaterally in 80% of cases. Far less data have been presented regarding the torus maxillaries primarily due to the lack of consensus regarding its nomenclature and classification. These oral tori are thought to be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner with a relatively high penetrance; however, environmental and functional factors have been postulated that may account for a more complex etiology than simply genetics. The torus auditivus is rarely acknowledged in clinical papers and most data are found in anthropological journals. Although there is an abundance of literature that addresses these traits individually, there is a lack of research that collectively acknowledges these. Therefore, the aim of this study was to present a composite review of the tori with regards to their anatomical features, prevalence, etiology and clinical relevance. Clin. Anat., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Marios Loukas; Paul Hulsberg; R Shane Tubbs; Theodoros Kapos; Christopher T Wartmann; Kitt Shaffer; Bernard J Moxham
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-8-20
Journal Detail:
Title:  Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.)     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1098-2353     ISO Abbreviation:  Clin Anat     Publication Date:  2013 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-8-20     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8809128     Medline TA:  Clin Anat     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, St George's University, Grenada, West Indies; Department of Anatomy, Medical School Varmia and Masuria, Olsztyn, Poland.
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