Document Detail

Monocyte/macrophages and their role in HIV neuropathogenesis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23772617     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Neurological sequelae of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been and remain a significant problem. Monocytes and macrophages in humans and monkeys are susceptible to infection by HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and are considered to be a main mechanism by which the central nervous system (CNS) is infected. Within the infected CNS, perivascular macrophages and, in some cases, parenchymal microglia are infected as are multinucleated giant cells when present. While neurons are not themselves directly infected, neuronal damage occurs within the infected CNS. Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in limiting virus in plasma to non-detectable levels, neurological deficits persist. This review discusses the continued neurological dysfunctions that persist in the era of ART, focusing on the roles of monocyte and macrophage as targets of continued viral infection and as agents of pathogenesis in what appears to be emergent macrophage-mediated disease resulting from long-term HIV infection of the host. Data discussed include the biology of monocyte/macrophage activation with HIV and SIV infection, traffic of cells into and out of the CNS with infection, macrophage-associated biomarkers of CNS and cardiac disease, the role of antiretroviral therapy on these cells and CNS disease, as well as the need for effective adjunctive therapies targeting monocytes and macrophages.
Tricia H Burdo; Andrew Lackner; Kenneth C Williams
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Immunological reviews     Volume:  254     ISSN:  1600-065X     ISO Abbreviation:  Immunol. Rev.     Publication Date:  2013 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-06-18     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7702118     Medline TA:  Immunol Rev     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  102-13     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA.
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