Document Detail


Monocyte/macrophages and their role in HIV neuropathogenesis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23772617     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Neurological sequelae of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been and remain a significant problem. Monocytes and macrophages in humans and monkeys are susceptible to infection by HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and are considered to be a main mechanism by which the central nervous system (CNS) is infected. Within the infected CNS, perivascular macrophages and, in some cases, parenchymal microglia are infected as are multinucleated giant cells when present. While neurons are not themselves directly infected, neuronal damage occurs within the infected CNS. Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in limiting virus in plasma to non-detectable levels, neurological deficits persist. This review discusses the continued neurological dysfunctions that persist in the era of ART, focusing on the roles of monocyte and macrophage as targets of continued viral infection and as agents of pathogenesis in what appears to be emergent macrophage-mediated disease resulting from long-term HIV infection of the host. Data discussed include the biology of monocyte/macrophage activation with HIV and SIV infection, traffic of cells into and out of the CNS with infection, macrophage-associated biomarkers of CNS and cardiac disease, the role of antiretroviral therapy on these cells and CNS disease, as well as the need for effective adjunctive therapies targeting monocytes and macrophages.
Authors:
Tricia H Burdo; Andrew Lackner; Kenneth C Williams
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Immunological reviews     Volume:  254     ISSN:  1600-065X     ISO Abbreviation:  Immunol. Rev.     Publication Date:  2013 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-06-18     Completed Date:  2014-01-24     Revised Date:  2014-07-02    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7702118     Medline TA:  Immunol Rev     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  102-13     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Acute-Phase Proteins / metabolism
Animals
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
Biological Markers
Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
Cell Movement / immunology
Central Nervous System Diseases / etiology*,  immunology*,  pathology
HIV Infections / complications*,  drug therapy,  immunology*
Humans
Immunity, Innate
Macrophages / immunology*,  metabolism,  virology
Metabolic Syndrome X / etiology
Monocytes / immunology*,  metabolism,  virology
Phenotype
Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications,  drug therapy,  immunology
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
NS040237/NS/NINDS NIH HHS; NS082116/NS/NINDS NIH HHS; P51 RR000164/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; R01 NS040237/NS/NINDS NIH HHS; R01 NS082116/NS/NINDS NIH HHS; RR000164/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; RR021309/RR/NCRR NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Acute-Phase Proteins; 0/Biological Markers
Comments/Corrections

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