Document Detail

A systematic approach to the bedside differentiation of cardiac murmurs and abnormal sounds.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  67009     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Fortified by knowledge gained from cardiac catheterization studies, a more precise physiologic approach to cardiac auscultation has evolved in recent years. This system involves observing changes in the characteristics of murmurs and abnormal sounds during respiration, the Valsalva maneuver, exercise, changes in posture, after pharmacologic agents and during arrhythmias, These techniques will aid in the accurate identification of the origin of the murmur or abnormal sound but do not necessarily indicate the presence or severity of cardiac disease. The auscultatory results must be interpreted in the light of the complete clinical evaluation, which may include the ECG, chest x-ray and echocardiogram. Thus, the careful physiologic approach to the physical examination represents a powerful noninvasive tool that, when combined with other noninvasive studies, can accurately diagnose cardiac disease in many patients without the necessity for cardiac catheterization.
M H Crawford; R A O'Rourke
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Current problems in cardiology     Volume:  1     ISSN:  0146-2806     ISO Abbreviation:  Curr Probl Cardiol     Publication Date:  1977 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1977-06-22     Completed Date:  1977-06-22     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7701802     Medline TA:  Curr Probl Cardiol     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1-42     Citation Subset:  IM; S    
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MeSH Terms
Amyl Nitrite / pharmacology
Blood Pressure
Cardiac Complexes, Premature / physiopathology
Cardiac Output / drug effects
Coronary Circulation / drug effects
Diagnosis, Differential
Heart / drug effects
Heart Auscultation*
Heart Murmurs
Heart Rate
Heart Sounds
Heart Valve Diseases / diagnosis*,  physiopathology
Myocardial Contraction
Phenylephrine / pharmacology
Physical Exertion
Pulmonary Valve / physiopathology
Pulmonary Valve Stenosis / physiopathology
Valsalva Maneuver
Reg. No./Substance:
59-42-7/Phenylephrine; 8017-89-8/Amyl Nitrite

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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