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A survey of East Palaearctic Lycosidae (Araneae). 7. A new species of Acantholycosa Dahl, 1908 from the Russian Far East.
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PMID:  21594141     Owner:  NLM     Status:  PubMed-not-MEDLINE    
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Acantholycosa azarkinaesp. n. is described from the Maritime Province of Russia on the basis of both sexes. Acantholycosa norvegica (Thorell, 1872) is reported from the Maritime Province for the first time. A key and illustrations to all six species that occur in Far East Asia are provided.
Authors:
Yuri M Marusik; Mikhail M Omelko
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Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2011-02-03
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Title:  ZooKeys     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1313-2970     ISO Abbreviation:  Zookeys     Publication Date:  2011  
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Created Date:  2011-05-19     Completed Date:  2011-07-14     Revised Date:  2013-05-29    
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Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1-10     Citation Subset:  -    
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Institute for Biological Problems of the North, Portovaya Str. 18, Magadan 685000 Russia.
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urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:41390A60-77D6-457D-BC1C-6841717F6B21Yuri M. Marusik, Mikhail M. Omelko
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Received Day: 25 Month: 1 Year: 2010
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PubMed Id: 21594141
DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.79.945

A survey of East Palaearctic Lycosidae (Araneae). 7. A new species of Acantholycosa Dahl, 1908 from the Russian Far East
Yuri M. Marusik13 urn:lsid:zoobank.org:author:06907F16-4F27-44BA-953F-513457C85DBF
Mikhail M. Omelko23 urn:lsid:zoobank.org:author:945480F8-C4E7-41F4-A637-7F43CCF84D40
1Institute for Biological Problems of the North, Portovaya Str. 18, Magadan 685000 Russia
2Gornotaezhnaya Station FEB RAS, Gornotaezhnoe Vil., Ussuriyski Dist., Primorski krai 692533
3 Zoological Museum, University of Turku, Turku, FI-20014, Finland
Correspondence: Corresponding author: Yuri M. Marusik (yurmar@mail.ru).
[edited-by] Academic editor: Dmitry Logunov

Introduction

[taxon-name: Acantholycosa] Dahl, 1908 is a relatively small Holarctic genus with 26 species and one subspecies (Platnick 2010). It is a well delimited genus that can easily be recognized by having 4–6 pairs of ventral tibial spines on legs I and II, and a modified palea. The genus was recently revised by Marusik et al. (2004). [taxon-name: Acantholycosa] has a rather unusual geographical distribution, with two centres of species richness, including an extraordinary degree of endemism in the northern Palaearctic (Marusik et al. 2004). Twenty-one species of this genus are known from the Altai-Sayan mountainous region, of which 17 are local endemics. Four species of [taxon-name: Acantholycosa] are known from the Maritime Province ([taxon-name: Acantholycosa aborigenica] Zyuzin & Marusik, 1998; [taxon-name: Acantholycosa lignaria] (Clerck, 1757), [taxon-name: Acantholycosa oligerae] Marusik et al., 2004 and [taxon-name: Acantholycosa sundukovi] Marusik et al., 2004), two of which are local endemics. No other areas in the Holarctic region have more than two species.

While studying wolf spiders in the Maritime Province of Russia we found two additional species, one of which was new to science. The main aim of this paper is to provide a description of the new species. We also review and provide a key to all species known to occur in the whole of the Russian Far East.


Material and methods

Specimens were photographed using an Olympus Camedia E-520 camera attached to an Olympus SZX16 stereomicroscope in the Zoological Museum, University of Turku. The images were montaged using “CombineZP” image stacking software. Photographs were taken in dishes of different size with paraffin at the bottom. Different sized holes were made in the bottom to keep the specimens in the required position. Figures 6–7, 13–21, 2940 are reproduced from Marusik et al. (2004) with permission of the coauthors G.N. Azarkina and S. Koponen, in addition to N. Smirnov, the chief editor of Arthropoda Selecta.

The standard of description follows that in Marusik et al. (2004). All measurements are in mm.

The material treated herein will be deposited in the Zoological Museum of the Moscow State University (ZMMU) and in Gornotayozhnaya Station (GTS).


Species survey
[taxon-name[genus: Acantholycosa][species: azarkinae]][taxon-status: sp. n.]

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:8E2A95F1-AC1D-4535-8FB1-2202B4897FF0

Figs 1–58–1226–28

Types.

Holotype ♂ and paratypes ♀ (ZMMU) and 1♂ 1♀ (GTS) from Russia, Maritime Province, Lazovski District, Sestra Mt., 43°31'52.23"N, 134°02'49.44"E, 1600 m, scree, 16–23.06.2005 (M.M. Omelko).

Etymology.

The specific name is a matronym in honor of our friend and colleague Galina N. Azarkina.

Diagnosis.

The new species can be easily distinguished from other congeners occurring in the Far East by the shape of the palp, which has a broad embolus tip (Figs 8, 10) (not broad in the other species) and by the shape of the epigyne, which has a broad apical pocket and well developed hoods (Figs 26–28).

Comments.

[taxon-name: Acantholycosa azarkinae] sp. n. is morphologically close to two other endemic species that occur in the Maritime Province: [taxon-name: Acantholycosa oligerae] and [taxon-name: Acantholycosa sundukovi]. The three species have similar male palps although they differ from one another by the shape of the tegular apophysis and the embolus.

Description

(male(female)). Total length 8.0(8.9). Carapace: 3.7(3.6) long, 3.4(3.1) wide. Carapace and abdomen blackish brown, pattern indistinct. Femora I in both sexes with dark semicircles. Males darker than females. Male leg I with dense black hairs on all segments except for tarsus (Fig. 5). Leg II also with hairs but less dense. Carapace/femur I ratio 1.06(1.0). Leg I segments: 3.5(3.6) + 1.5(1.6) + 3.5(3.5) + 3.5(3.2) + 1.7(1.5). Femur I with 2 dorsal, 2 pro- and 2 retrolateral spines; patella with 1 retrolateral spine (0 in female); tibia I with 1 prolateral and 5 pairs of ventral spines (1p, 1r, 5-5v in females); metatarsus with 1 pro-, 1 retrolateral and 2 pairs of ventral spines.

Male palp as in Figs 1–4, 8–12. Cymbium with 3 claws, tegular apophysis without apical arm, palea with laminar outgrowth, terminal apophysis large with claw-like tip; embolic base with small, almost indistinct “spine”, tip of embolus widened and subdivided into two lobes.

Epigyne as in Figs 26–28. Apical pocket wide with two distinct hoods, septum distinct, septum with trapezoidal base; spermathecae long, with blind outgrowth in basal third.

Distribution.

Type locality only.

[taxon-name: [genus: Acantholycosa][species: aborigenica]]

[taxon-authority: Zyuzin & Marusik, 1988]

Figs 2235–36

  • [taxon-name: Acantholycosa aborigenica][comment: Zyuzin and Marusik 1988: 1083, f. 1–6 (♂♀).]
  • [taxon-name: Acantholycosa aborigenica][comment: : Marusik et al. 2004: 123, f. 108–114, 125–127, 147–151 (♂♀).]
Material examined.

4♂ 3♀ (GTS), Russia, Maritime Province, Ussuriyski District, environs of Gornotaezhnoe Village, Kamenistaya Sopka, 43°42'22.02"N, 132°07'30.93"E, 218 m, stones, 19–26.06.2010 (M.M. Omelko); 3♂ (GTS), same locality, 02.07.2010 (M.M. Omelko).

Comments.

This species has been well described in the two publications mentioned above. It is distributed from Central Aimak in Mongolia to Kolyma River, and south to Maritime Province (Marusik et al. 2004). Within the Far East it has been reported from the upper Kolyma, northern Cisokhotia, as well as from the Khasan and Ussuriyski districts of Maritime Province.

[taxon-name: [genus: Acantholycosa][species: lignaria]][taxon-status: (Clerck, 1757)]

Figs 2333–3437

  • [taxon-name: Acantholycosa lignaria][comment: : Holm 1947: 37, pl. 8, f. 82–83, pl. 10, f. 47 (♂♀).]
  • [taxon-name: Acantholycosa lignaria][comment: : Marusik et al. 2004: 119, f. 27–29, 54, 115–121 (♂♀).]
Material examined.

2♀ (GTS), Russia, Maritime Province, Chuguevskii District, Oblachnaya Mt., 43°41'43.75"N, 134°12'00.04"E, 600 m, fallen tree-trunks, 11–15.08.2003 (M.M. Omelko).

Comments.

This species has been well described in several publications. It has a trans-Palaearctic range (Marusik et al. 2004). Previously it was reported from Ussuri Reserve (Marusik et al. 2004). Unlike other [taxon-name: Acantholycosa] species this species lives in habitats without stones. From other congeners it can be easily distinguished by having only 4 pairs of ventral tibial spines (other species have 5–6 pairs).

[taxon-name: [genus: Acantholycosa][species: norvegica]]

[taxon-authority: (Thorell, 1872)]

Figs 24–2531–3238–39

  • [taxon-name: Acantholycosa norvegica][comment: : Holm 1947: 38, f. 4a, 15–16, pl. 8, f. 84–85 (♂♀).]
  • [taxon-name: Acantholycosa norvegica][comment: : Marusik et al. 2004: 128, f. 92–97, 122–124, 168–172, 181–182 (♂♀).]
Material examined.

5♂ 3♀ (GTS), Russia, Maritime Province, Chuguevskii District, Oblachnaya Mt., 43°41'43.75"N, 134°12'00.04"E, 1750 m, high mountain birch wood, 23.06.2008, (M.M. Omelko); 39♂ 4♀ (GTS), same locality, bush thicket, 23.06.2008 (M.M. Omelko).

Comments.

[taxon-name: Acantholycosa norvegica] is the type species of the genus. It has been well described in several publications. This species has a trans-Palaearctic range. Although it has a wide range and is known from the adjacent Khabarovsk Province (Trilikauskas 2007) and the more eastern Magadan Area, it has not previously been reported from the Maritime Province. It is worth mentioning that the record from Maritime Province is the southernmost of its known range.

[taxon-name: [genus: Acantholycosa][species: oligerae]]

[taxon-authority: Marusik, Azarkina & Koponen, 2004]

Figs 13–1420–212629–3040

  • [taxon-name: Acantholycosa oligerae][comment: Marusik et al. 2004: 126, f. 19–20, 128, 152–161 (♂♀).]
Comments.

This species was recently described from material found at a single locality in the Lazo Reserve, the Russian Far East.

[taxon-name: [genus: Acantholycosa][species: sundukovi]]

[taxon-authority: Marusik, Azarkina & Koponen, 2004]

Figs 15–16, 17–19

  • [taxon-name: Acantholycosa sundukovi][comment: Marusik et al. 2004: 128, f. 162–167 (♂).]
Comments.

This species is known from the holotype male only. So far, [taxon-name: Acantholycosa sundukovi] is known from a single locality in the Lazo Reserve (Kordon Amerika), the Russian Far East.


Key to the Far Eastern [taxon-name: Acantholycosa]

Conclusions

The number of [taxon-name: Acantholycosa] species in the Maritime Province of Russia is fewer than that of the Altai-Sayan region only, with 6 and 21 species respectively. The same is true for the number of endemic species (3 and 17 respectively). Presently, only the southern region of the Maritime Province has been relatively well studied. The huge territories of Sikhote-Alin remain uninvestigated. Given the high level of endemism among petrophilous species of spiders it is reasonable to expect the occurrence of additional new species in the province, especially on isolated screes on mountain tops.


Acknowledgements

We thank Seppo Koponen who arranged the stay of both of us in Turku and allowed us to use local facilities (SEM and digital photomicroscopy). English of the final draft was kindly checked by David Penney. This work was supported in part by the RFFI grants # 09-04-01365 and 11-04-01716.


References
Holm Å. (Year: 1947) Svensk Spindelfauna III. Oxyopidae, Lycosidae, Pisauridae. Stockholm, 48 pp.
Marusik YM,Azarkina GN,Koponen S. (Year: 2004) A survey of East Palaearctic Lycosidae (Aranei). II. Genus Acantholycosa Dahl, 1908 and related new genera.Arthropoda Selecta12 (2):101-148
Trilikauskas L. (Year: 2007) Spiders of the upper belts in the Dusse-Alin’ Mt Range (Bureinski Reserve). Trudy gsudarstvennogo prirodnogo zapovednika “Bureinskiy” 3, Khabarovsk: IVEP DVO RAN, 84–88
Platnick NI. (Year: 2010) The world spider catalog, version 11.0. American Museum of Natural History, New Yorkhttp://research.amnh.org/iz/spiders/catalog/ [accessed 4 December 2010]
Zyuzin AA,Marusik YM. (Year: 1988) A new species of spiders of the genus Acantholycosa (Aranei, Lycosidae) from the east Siberia.Zoologicheski Zhurnal67:1083-1085

Figures

[Figure ID: F1]
Figures 1–7. 

Male palp and leg I of [taxon-name: Acantholycosa azarkinae] sp. n. (1–5), [taxon-name: Acantholycosa oligerae] (6) and [taxon-name: Acantholycosa sundukovi] (7). 1, 6, 7 male palp, ventral 2 male palp, retrolateral 3 bulbus, ventral 4 bulbus, retrolateral 5 leg I, prolateral. 6–7 after Marusik et al. (2004). Scale = 0.1 if not otherwise indicated.



[Figure ID: F2]
Figures 8–21. 

Male palp of [taxon-name: Acantholycosa azarkinae] sp. n. (8–12), [taxon-name: Acantholycosa oligerae] (13–14, 20–21) and [taxon-name: Acantholycosa sundukovi] (15–16, 17–19). 8 bulbus, from above 9, 13, 15 terminal part of palp, ventral 10 terminal part of palp, from above 11 tegulum, from above 12, 14, 16 terminal part of palp, retrolateral 17, 20 tegular apophysis, ventral 18, 21 embolus, from above 19 terminal part of embolus and terminal apophysis. 13–21 after Marusik et al. (2004). Scale = 0.1 mm if not otherwise indicated.Abbreviations: Bs = basal spine of embolus.



[Figure ID: F3]
Figures 22–25. 

Male palp of [taxon-name: Acantholycosa aborigenica] (22), [taxon-name: Acantholycosa lignaria] (23) and [taxon-name: Acantholycosa norvegica] (24–25). 22–23 ventral 24 bulbus, ventral 25 base of embolus showing tooth. All after Marusik et al. (2004). Scale = 0.1 mm.Abbreviations: Bs = basal spine of embolus.



[Figure ID: F4]
Figures 26–34. 

Epigyne of [taxon-name: Acantholycosa azarkinae] sp. n. (26–28), [taxon-name: Acantholycosa oligerae] (29–30), [taxon-name: Acantholycosa norvegica] (31–32) and [taxon-name: Acantholycosa lignaria] (33–34). 26, 28–29, 31, 33 epigyne, ventral 27, 30, 32, 34 vulva, dorsal. 27–28, 30, 32, 34 after maceration. 29–34 after Marusik et al. (2004). Scale = 0.1 mm if not otherwise indicated.



[Figure ID: F5]
Figures 35–40. 

SEM microphotographs of epigyne of [taxon-name: Acantholycosa aborigenica] (35–36), [taxon-name: Acantholycosa lignaria] (37), [taxon-name: Acantholycosa norvegica] (38–39) and [taxon-name: Acantholycosa oligerae] (40). All after Marusik et al. (2004). Scale = 0.1 mm.



Tables
[TableWrap ID: d33e749]
1 Males 2
Females (♀ of [taxon-name: Acantholycosa sundukovi] – unknown) 7
2 Embolus with large basal spine (Fig. 25); palea with non laminar outgrowth (Fig. 24), terminal apophysis with fine spine (Fig. 24) [taxon-name: Acantholycosa norvegica]
Embolus without basal spine or spine is small, almost indistinct; palea with laminar outgrowth 3
3 Tegular apophysis longer than wide due to well developed apical arm (Figs 6–7) 4
Tegular apophysis wider than long, apical arm absent or small 5
4 Apical arm of tegular apophysis 1.5 times longer than width of apophysis (Fig. 6); tibia I with 6 pairs of ventral spines [taxon-name: Acantholycosa oligerae]
Apical arm of tegular apophysis as long as width of apophysis (Fig. 7); tibia I with 5 pairs of ventral spines [taxon-name: Acantholycosa sundukovi]
5 Tibia-metatarsus I and II with long hairs (Fig. 5); tip of embolus broad and twisted (Figs 1, 3–4, 8–12) [taxon-name: Acantholycosa azarkinae] sp.n.
Legs I and II without long hairs; tip of embolus not broad and not twisted 6
6 Tip of embolus bent (Fig. 22); paleal outgrowth larger than tegular apophysis; tibia I with 5–6 pairs of ventral spines [taxon-name: Acantholycosa aborigenica]
Tip of embolus not bent (Fig. 23); paleal outgrowth smaller than tegular apophysis; tibia I with 4 pairs of ventral spines [taxon-name: Acantholycosa lignaria]
7 Apical pocket thinner than septal width (Figs 31, 33, 37–39) 8
Apical pocket wider or subequal to width of septum (Figs 26–28, 35–36) 9
8 Fovea and septum triangle-shaped (Figs 33, 37), stem of septum lies in thin furrow; tibia I with 4 pairs of ventral spines [taxon-name: Acantholycosa lignaria]
Fovea and septum square or round in shape (Figs 31–32, 38–39); tibia I with 5 pairs of ventral spines [taxon-name: Acantholycosa norvegica]
9 Metatarsus I with 3 pairs of ventral spines; femur I with one retrolateral spine [taxon-name: Acantholycosa oligerae]
Metatarsus I with 2 pairs of ventral spines; femur I with 2 retrolateral spines 10
10 Fovea with rounded sides, apical pocket undivided (Figs 35–36) [taxon-name: Acantholycosa aborigenica]
Fovea with straight sides (Figs 26–28), apical pocket with two distinct hoods [taxon-name: Acantholycosa azarkinae] sp.n.


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Keywords: Keywords  spiders, East Palaearctic, Asia, new species, key.

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