Document Detail

The stratum corneum: the rampart of the mammalian body.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23331681     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: The stratum corneum (SC) is the outermost region of the epidermis and plays key roles in cutaneous barrier function in mammals. The SC is composed of 'bricks', represented by flattened, protein-enriched corneocytes, and 'mortar', represented by intercellular lipid-enriched layers. As a result of this 'bricks and mortar' structure, the SC can be considered as a 'rampart' that encloses water and solutes essential for physiological homeostasis and that protects mammals from physical, chemical and biological assaults.
STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS: The corneocyte cytoskeleton contains tight bundles of keratin intermediate filaments aggregated with filaggrin monomers, which are subsequently degraded into natural moisturizing compounds by various proteases, including caspase 14. A cornified cell envelope is formed on the inner surface of the corneocyte plasma membrane by transglutaminase-catalysed cross-linking of involucrin and loricrin. Ceramides form a lipid envelope by covalently binding to the cornified cell envelope, and extracellular lamellar lipids play an important role in permeability barrier function. Corneodesmosomes are the main adhesive structures in the SC and are degraded by certain serine proteases, such as kallikreins, during desquamation.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The roles of the different SC components, including the structural proteins in corneocytes, extracellular lipids and some proteins associated with lipid metabolism, have been investigated in genetically engineered mice and in naturally occurring hereditary skin diseases, such as ichthyosis, ichthyosis syndrome and atopic dermatitis in humans, cattle and dogs.
Koji Nishifuji; Ji Seon Yoon
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Veterinary dermatology     Volume:  24     ISSN:  1365-3164     ISO Abbreviation:  Vet. Dermatol.     Publication Date:  2013 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-01-21     Completed Date:  2013-07-03     Revised Date:  2013-07-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9426187     Medline TA:  Vet Dermatol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  60-72.e15-6     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo, Japan.
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MeSH Terms
Epidermis / anatomy & histology*,  metabolism*
Gene Expression Regulation / physiology
Mammals / anatomy & histology*,  physiology*
Skin Diseases / pathology

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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