Document Detail

The skeleton as an endocrine organ.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23045255     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Surprising new discoveries in the field of skeletal biology show that bone cells produce endocrine hormones that regulate phosphate and glucose homeostasis. In this Review, we examine the features of these new endocrine pathways and discuss their physiological importance in the context of our current understanding of energy metabolism and mineral homeostasis. Consideration of evolutionary and comparative biology provides clues that a key driving force for the emergence of these hormonal pathways was the development of a large, energy-expensive musculoskeletal system. Specialized bone cells also evolved and produced endocrine hormones to integrate the skeleton in global mineral and nutrient homeostasis. The recognition of bone as a true endocrine organ represents a fertile area for further research and should improve the diagnosis and treatment of metabolic diseases such as osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus.
Douglas J Digirolamo; Thomas L Clemens; Stavroula Kousteni
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-10-09
Journal Detail:
Title:  Nature reviews. Rheumatology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1759-4804     ISO Abbreviation:  Nat Rev Rheumatol     Publication Date:  2012 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-9     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101500080     Medline TA:  Nat Rev Rheumatol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 601 North Caroline Street, Baltimore, MD 21287 USA.
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