Document Detail

The safety value of guardrails and crash cushions: a meta-analysis of evidence from evaluation studies.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  7546065     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Evidence from 32 studies that have evaluated the safety effects of median barriers, guardrails along the edge of the road, and crash cushions (impact attenuators) is summarized by means of a meta-analysis. Two hundred and thirty-two (232) estimates of safety effects are included in the meta-analysis. The presence of publication bias is tested by means of the funnel graph method. For most subsets of the data, no evidence of publication bias is found. Weighted mean estimates of safety effects are computed by means of the logodds method. Median barriers are found to increase accident rate, but reduce accident severity. Guardrails and crash cushions are found to reduce both accident rate and accident severity. The effects of guardrails and crash cushions on accident rate have been less extensively studied than the effects on accident severity. Current estimates of the effects on accident rate are highly uncertain because of methodological shortcomings of available studies. The effects of guardrails on accident severity are found to be quite robust with respect to study design and the number of confounding variables controlled in each study. In general, random variation in the number of accidents is the most important source of variation in study results.
R Elvik
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Meta-Analysis    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Accident; analysis and prevention     Volume:  27     ISSN:  0001-4575     ISO Abbreviation:  Accid Anal Prev     Publication Date:  1995 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1995-11-21     Completed Date:  1995-11-21     Revised Date:  2007-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  1254476     Medline TA:  Accid Anal Prev     Country:  ENGLAND    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  523-49     Citation Subset:  IM    
Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo, Norway.
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MeSH Terms
Accidents, Traffic / prevention & control*,  statistics & numerical data
Bias (Epidemiology)
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Injury Severity Score
Protective Devices*
Reproducibility of Results
Research Design
Risk Factors

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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