Document Detail

The safety of methimazole and propylthiouracil in pregnancy: a systematic review.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23231846     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Background: Hyperthyroidism is one of the most common endocrine disorders in pregnant women, and it can severely complicate the course and outcome of pregnancy. Methimazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU) are the standard anti-thyroid drugs used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. Traditionally, MMI has been considered to have clearer evidence of teratogenicity than PTU. Recent studies suggest that PTU can be hepatotoxic, leading to a United States Food and Drug Administration "black box alert." We wished to systematically review the effects of PTU and MMI during pregnancy, and to compare maternal and fetal safety. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, TOXNET, TOXLINK, DART, Medscape, EBSCO, and Google. Both English and non-English publications were included. We excluded studies using anti-thyroid therapies other than PTU and MMI, studies not allowing interpretation of results, and abstracts of meetings. Results: Overall, insufficient statistical power precluded determination of accurate rates of either MMI teratogenicity or PTU hepatotoxicity in cohort studies. However, a case-control study helped identify the relative risk of MMI-induced choanal atresia. A second case-control study failed to show that aplasia cutis congenita is associated with MMI. PTU has been associated with a rare but serious form of hepatic failure. Conclusion: MMI causes a specific pattern of rare teratogenic effects after first trimester exposure, while PTU therapy may be followed by rare but severe hepatotoxic sequelae. It is therefore appropriate to use PTU to treat maternal hyperthyroidism during the first trimester of pregnancy, and to switch to MMI for the remainder of the pregnancy.
Rinat Hackmon; Monica Blichowski; Gideon Koren
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obstétrique et gynécologie du Canada : JOGC     Volume:  34     ISSN:  1701-2163     ISO Abbreviation:  J Obstet Gynaecol Can     Publication Date:  2012 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-12-12     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101126664     Medline TA:  J Obstet Gynaecol Can     Country:  Canada    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1077-86     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto ON.
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