Document Detail

A safety and immunogenicity comparison of 12 acellular pertussis vaccines and one whole-cell pertussis vaccine given as a fourth dose in 15- to 20-month-old children.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9346976     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and immunogenicity of 12 different acellular pertussis vaccines combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTaP) with one licensed diphtheria, tetanus, and whole-cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP) as a fourth-dose booster in children who had previously received DTaP or DTwP primary vaccinations. METHODS: Healthy 15- to 20-month-old children were enrolled at six National Institutes of Health Vaccine Treatment and Evaluation Units. All had been randomly assigned to receive three primary doses of DTaP or DTwP at 2, 4, and 6 months of age as part of an earlier National Institutes of Health multicenter trial of DTaP vaccines in the same Vaccine Treatment and Evaluation Units. Parents recorded the occurrence and magnitude of fever; irritability; and injection site redness, swelling, and pain for 3 days after vaccination. Sera obtained before and 1 month after the booster vaccination were analyzed for antibody to pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), fimbriae (FIM), and pertactin (PRN). Diphtheria and tetanus toxoid as well as PT neutralizing (Chinese hamster ovary cell) and whole-cell agglutinating antibodies were measured on a subset of sera. RESULTS: A total of 1293 children contributed fourth-dose reaction data. Reactions were less frequent after DTaP than after DTwP. For children vaccinated with a fourth dose of DTaP, which was the same DTaP as received in the primary series, fever and injection site redness, swelling, and pain increased in prevalence compared with the third dose in the primary series. For children receiving DTaP as a fourth dose, injection site redness and swelling occurred more frequently in DTaP-primed than in DTwP-primed children. Variation in the occurrence of reactions among DTaP vaccines was observed. A total of 1160 paired pre- and postvaccination sera were available for analysis. Serum antibody concentrations before boosting were lower than those obtained 1 month after the primary immunization. After the fourth dose, significant increases in antibodies directed against the included antigens were observed for all vaccines; postbooster vaccination antibody titers differed significantly among the DTaP vaccines. For children primed and boosted with the same DTaP, antibody levels were not directly related to the quantity of antigen included for PT, FHA, and FIM; for PRN, there was a closer relationship. Some DTaP vaccines given as fourth-dose boosters elicited antibody to PRN or FIM in some vaccinees, although the DTaP vaccines were not reported to contain these antigens; these responses were observed more frequently in DTwP-primed children. Agglutinin antibody rises were observed in all groups immunized with four doses of a DTaP vaccine containing FHA or PRN, regardless of whether the vaccine included FIM. Diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels exceeded the presumed protective concentration (0.1 IU/mL for diphtheria and 0.01 IU/mL for tetanus) after the fourth dose for all vaccinees. CONCLUSION: Although differences were observed in reaction rates among the DTaP vaccines given as a fourth dose, the DTaP vaccines were, in general, associated with fewer adverse events than a US-licensed DTwP. For DTaP vaccines, fever; irritability; and injection site pain, redness, and swelling occurred more frequently after the fourth dose than after the third dose of the same vaccine in the primary series. No DTaP was consistently most or least reactogenic or immunogenic. Although serologic correlates of pertussis immunity are not defined, it is clear that most DTaP vaccines can stimulate comparable or higher serum antibody responses than DTwP for those antigens contained in the vaccine.
M E Pichichero; M A Deloria; M B Rennels; E L Anderson; K M Edwards; M D Decker; J A Englund; M C Steinhoff; A Deforest; B D Meade
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Pediatrics     Volume:  100     ISSN:  1098-4275     ISO Abbreviation:  Pediatrics     Publication Date:  1997 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1997-11-13     Completed Date:  1997-11-13     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376422     Medline TA:  Pediatrics     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  772-88     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Antibodies, Bacterial / blood*
Bordetella pertussis / immunology
Double-Blind Method
Immunization, Secondary / adverse effects*
Pertussis Vaccine / adverse effects*,  immunology*
Whooping Cough / immunology*
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Antibodies, Bacterial; 0/Pertussis Vaccine

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