Document Detail

A safe strategy for addition of vitamins and minerals to foods.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16200467     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Addition of vitamins and minerals to foods must be done without health risk to any consumer group. International expert groups have aimed at establishing tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) for vitamins and minerals although lack of solid data on their safety is a major obstacle to this work. In this paper, we summarize the existing ULs and suggest the use of guidance levels (GLs) set by others and temporary guidance levels (TGLs) proposed here, whenever no consensus UL has been established for adults. We suggest the use of body surface area ratios to establish similar levels for younger age groups. The levels are applied in a model for calculation of safe fortification levels for all ages. We have estimated the upper 95(th) percentile intake of vitamins and minerals from food in various Danish age and gender groups and suggest that a daily multivitamin-mineral pill is included in the calculation of total dietary intake levels of all vitamins and minerals. By subtracting this dietary intake level from the UL, GL or TGL, we calculate the amount that can be safely used for fortification. Since safety must be assured for all age groups, the smallest difference relative to energy intake calculated for any age group is proposed as the maximal allowance (MA) for fortification with each nutrient. We suggest that the MA should be expressed in weight units per energy unit in order to distribute it equally between potentially fortifiable food groups according to their usual contribution to total energy intakes.
S E Rasmussen; N L Andersen; L O Dragsted; J C Larsen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review     Date:  2005-10-12
Journal Detail:
Title:  European journal of nutrition     Volume:  45     ISSN:  1436-6207     ISO Abbreviation:  Eur J Nutr     Publication Date:  2006 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-03-21     Completed Date:  2007-05-14     Revised Date:  2009-11-03    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100888704     Medline TA:  Eur J Nutr     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  123-35     Citation Subset:  IM    
Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, 19 Mørkhøj Bygade, 2860, Søborg, Denmark.
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MeSH Terms
Age Factors
Child, Preschool
Consumer Product Safety*
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Food, Fortified*
Minerals / administration & dosage,  adverse effects*
Nutrition Policy
Sex Factors
Vitamins / administration & dosage,  adverse effects*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Minerals; 0/Vitamins

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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