Document Detail


The role of ultrasonography in the differentiation of the various types of filaricele due to bancroftian filariasis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20673752     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
OBJECTIVE: (i) To determine the frequencies of urogenital pathologies in men infected with bancroftian filariasis, and (ii) to evaluate the role of ultrasonography (USG) as a diagnostic tool to differentiate between diverse pathologies with different clinical implications. To date, all types of scrotal enlargement resulting from lymphatic filariasis (LF) have been summarized under one term: "filaricele".
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were compiled from recruitment phases for field trials in an endemic area for LF in Ghana. 1453 men aged 18 years and above underwent ultrasound examinations of the scrotum. Observation parameters were: Filaria Dance Sign (FDS), dilation of supratesticular lymphatic vessels, thickness of scrotal skin, occurrence and amount of fluid accumulation, echogenicity of the fluid between the layers of the tunica vaginalis, as well as position and homogenicity of testis, epididymis and spermatic cord. In 1132 men, blood samples were taken for parasitological analysis.
RESULTS: In 56% of examined patients, fluid accumulation around the testis was detected (38% subclinical-, 18% clinical stages). Differentiation of the echogenicity of the fluid revealed echo-free hydrocele (EFH) in 47% and echo-dense hydrocele (EDH) in 9%. Patients without hydrocele and subclinical stages had a thinner scrotal skin than those in clinical stages or with lymphscrotum (P<0.001). In the EDH group the scrotal skin was thicker than in the EFH group (P<0.001). 1.4% had a lymphscrotum. FDS was detected in 24% of all 1453 volunteers who underwent USG. The number of worm nests correlated with microfilarial load and levels of circulating filarial antigen (P<0.001; 20% microfilaremic, 48% antigen positive).
CONCLUSION: In an unexpected high number of men (56%) fluid accumulation around the testis was detected by USG of which more than one third (38%) presented with subclinical stages. The study showed that echo-dense and echo-free fluid could be differentiated and that a considerable number of cases had EDH (9%) posing a risk to develop necrotic testis and infertility and therefore requiring immediate surgical intervention. USG thus turned out to be a useful diagnostic technique to differentiate between those cases requiring immediate surgical intervention from those that can be treated with (anti-wolbachial and hyperpermeability reducing) drugs that ameliorate or halt progression of the disease.
Authors:
Sabine Mand; Alexander Y Debrah; Ute Klarmann; Sunny Mante; Alexander Kwarteng; Linda Batsa; Yeboah Marfo-Debrekyei; Ohene Adjei; Achim Hoerauf
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2010-07-29
Journal Detail:
Title:  Acta tropica     Volume:  120 Suppl 1     ISSN:  1873-6254     ISO Abbreviation:  Acta Trop.     Publication Date:  2011 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-10-11     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0370374     Medline TA:  Acta Trop     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  S23-32     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
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