Document Detail

The role of biomarkers in evaluating human health concerns from fungal contaminants in food.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22651937     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites that globally contaminate an estimated 25 % of cereal crops and thus exposure is frequent in many populations. Aflatoxins, fumonisins and deoxynivalenol are amongst those mycotoxins of particular concern from a human health perspective. A number of risks to health are suggested including cancer, growth faltering, immune suppression and neural tube defects; though only the demonstrated role for aflatoxin in the aetiology of liver cancer is widely recognised. The heterogeneous distribution of mycotoxins in food restricts the usefulness of food sampling and intake estimates; instead biomarkers provide better tools for informing epidemiological investigations. Validated exposure biomarkers for aflatoxin (urinary aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin-N7-guaunine, serum aflatoxin-albumin) were established almost 20 years ago and were critical in confirming aflatoxins as potent liver carcinogens. Validation has included demonstration of assay robustness, intake v. biomarker level, and stability of stored samples. More recently, aflatoxin exposure biomarkers are revealing concerns of growth faltering and immune suppression; importantly, they are being used to assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies. For fumonisins and deoxynivalenol these steps of development and validation have significantly advanced in recent years. Such biomarkers should better inform epidemiological studies and thus improve our understanding of their potential risk to human health.
Paul C Turner; Brenna Flannery; Catherine Isitt; Mariyam Ali; James Pestka
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-6-1
Journal Detail:
Title:  Nutrition research reviews     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1475-2700     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-6-1     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9113797     Medline TA:  Nutr Res Rev     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  1-18     Citation Subset:  -    
Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
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