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The role of PGE(2)-associated inflammatory responses in gastric cancer development.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23053397     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Accumulating evidence indicates that inflammation plays a critical role in cancer development. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a rate-limiting enzyme for prostanoid biosynthesis, including prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and plays a key role in both inflammation and cancer. It has been demonstrated that inhibition of COX-2 and PGE(2) receptor signaling results in the suppression of tumor development in a variety of animal models. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying COX-2/PGE(2)-associated inflammation in carcinogenesis have not yet been fully elucidated. In order to study the role of PGE(2)-associated inflammatory responses in tumorigenesis, it is important to use in vivo mouse models that recapitulate human cancer development from molecular mechanisms with construction of tumor microenvironment. We have developed a gastritis model (K19-C2mE mice) in which an inflammatory microenvironment is constructed in the stomach via induction of the COX-2/PGE(2) pathway. We also developed a gastric cancer mouse model (Gan mice) in which the mice develop inflammation-associated gastric tumors via activation of both the COX-2/PGE(2) pathway and Wnt signaling. Expression analyses using these in vivo models have revealed novel mechanisms of the inflammatory responses underlying gastric cancer development. PGE(2)-associated inflammatory responses activate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling through the induction of EGFR ligands and ADAMs that release EGFR ligands from the cell membrane. In Gan mice, a combination treatment with EGFR and COX-2 inhibitors significantly suppresses gastric tumorigenesis. Moreover, PGE(2)-associated inflammation downregulates tumor suppressor microRNA, miR-7, in gastric cancer cells, which suppresses epithelial differentiation. These results indicate that PGE(2)-associated inflammatory responses promote in vivo gastric tumorigenesis via several different molecular mechanisms.
Hiroko Oshima; Masanobu Oshima
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-10-11
Journal Detail:
Title:  Seminars in immunopathology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1863-2300     ISO Abbreviation:  Semin Immunopathol     Publication Date:  2012 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-11     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101308769     Medline TA:  Semin Immunopathol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Division of Genetics, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, 920-1192, Japan.
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