Document Detail


The role of 3-D ultrasonography in the evaluation of menstrual cycle-related vascular modifications of the clitoris. A prospective pilot study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19686424     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Process    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
INTRODUCTION: Clitoral functional modifications occur during the menstrual cycle. AIM: To prospectively evaluate, by the three-dimensional (3-D) Doppler flow analysis, the hemodynamic clitoral blood flow variations during the menstrual cycle. METHODS. Fourteen young (18-35 years), eumenorrheic (menstrual cycle of >25 and <35 days) women in a stable heterosexual relationship (>1 year) and without any sexual dysfunction (as resulted from the two-factor Italian McCoy female sexuality questionnaire > or =35) were submitted, in the early follicular (day 3-5) and in the periovulatory (day 12-14) phases of the menstrual cycle, to bi- and tridimensional ultrasonographic and color Doppler analyses of the clitoral structures. On the same days, the circulating estradiol values were assayed. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES. Two-dimensional ultrasonographic evaluation of follicular diameter and color Doppler evaluation of the dorsal clitoral arteries; 3-D power Doppler analysis of the clitoral body volume and of the indices of clitoral vascularization and blood flow; estradiol assay. RESULTS: The mean virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL) volume of the clitoral body was lower in the follicular (0.79 +/- 0.19 mL) phase with respect to the periovulatory phase (0.98 +/- 0.22 mL; P < 0.001); the clitoral arteries demonstrated a significant decrease of the pulsatility index (PI) from the follicular (1.75 +/- 0.18) to the periovulatory phase (1.26 +/- 0.21; P = 0.002); the 3-D power Doppler histogram analysis showed significant changes of the indices of vascularization and blood flow (vascularization index [VI] = 2.239 +/- 1.201 vs. 3.302 +/- 1.305, P = 0.001; flow index = 27.290 +/- 2.454 vs. 33.620 +/- 1.712, P < 0.001; vascularization flow index = 0.578 +/- 0.573 vs. 1.091 +/- 0.461; P = 0.001) between the follicular and the periovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle. The relationship between the different parameters evidenced that estradiol is positively correlated with the VOCAL clitoral body volume (r = 0.512; P = 0.033) and inversely correlated with the dorsal clitoral artery PI (r = -497; P = 0.048) and with VI (r = 0.622; P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: During the normal menstrual cycle, the estrogens may, probably, influence the clitoral anatomic and vascular structures and the 3-D ultrasonography may easily and precisely demonstrate these modifications.
Authors:
Cesare Battaglia; Rossella Elena Nappi; Giovanni Sisti; Nicola Persico; Paolo Busacchi; Stefano Venturoli
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2009-08-04
Journal Detail:
Title:  The journal of sexual medicine     Volume:  6     ISSN:  1743-6109     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2009 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-10-12     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101230693     Medline TA:  J Sex Med     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  2715-21     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti 13, Bologna 40138, Italy. cesare.battaglia@unibo.it
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