Document Detail

The release of dipicolinic acid - The rate-limiting step of Bacillus endospore inactivation during the high pressure thermal sterilization process.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23353555     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
High pressure combined with elevated temperatures can produce low acid, commercially sterile and shelf-stable foods. Depending on the temperature and pressure levels applied, bacterial endospores pass through different pathways, which can lead to a pressure-induced germination or inactivation. Regardless of the pathway, Bacillus endospores first release pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (DPA), which contributes to the low amount of free water in the spore core and is consequently responsible for the spore's high resistance against wet and dry heat. This is therefore the rate-limiting step in the high pressure sterilization process. To evaluate the impact of a broad pressure, temperature and time domain on the DPA release, Bacillus subtilis spores were pressure treated between 0.1 and 900MPa at between 30 and 80°C under isothermal isobaric conditions during dwell time. DPA quantification was assessed using HPLC, and samples were taken both immediately and 2h after the pressure treatment. To obtain a release kinetic for some pressure-temperature conditions, samples were collected between 1s and 60min after decompression. A multiresponse kinetic model was then used to derive a model covering all kinetic data. The isorate lines modeled for the DPA release in the chosen pressure-temperature landscape enabled the determination of three distinct zones. (I) For pressures <600MPa and temperatures >50°C, a 90% DPA release was achievable in less than 5min and no difference in the amount of DPA was found immediately 2h after pressurization. This may indicate irreversible damage to the inner spore membrane or membrane proteins. (II) Above 600MPa the synergism between pressure and temperature diminished, and the treatment temperature alone dominated DPA release. (III) Pressures <600MPa and temperatures <50°C resulted in a retarded release of DPA, with strong increased differences in the amount of DPA released after 2h, which implies a pressure-induced physiological like germination with cortex degradation, which continues after pressure release. Furthermore, at 600MPa and 40°C, a linear relationship was found for the DPA release rate constants ln(k(DPA)) between 1 and 30min.
Kai Reineke; Karl Schlumbach; Daniel Baier; Alexander Mathys; Dietrich Knorr
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-1-5
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of food microbiology     Volume:  162     ISSN:  1879-3460     ISO Abbreviation:  Int. J. Food Microbiol.     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-1-28     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8412849     Medline TA:  Int J Food Microbiol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  55-63     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Department of Food Biotechnology and Food Process Engineering, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Quality and Safety of Food and Feed, Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering (ATB), Potsdam, Germany. Electronic address:
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