Document Detail

The relationship of internally directed behavior to self-reinforcement, self-esteem, and expectancy values for exercise.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10146797     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
PURPOSE: This study investigated two opposing orientations toward exercise and wellness behavior as related to selected personal characteristics. A "self-trusting" orientation focuses on process measures, and exercise and wellness behavior is internally directed. A "self-controlling" orientation focuses on outcome measures, and exercise and wellness behavior is externally directed. DESIGN: Relationships among variables were assessed using Pearson correlation and step-wise multiple regression. SETTING: One questionnaire was administered to all subjects under quiet classroom conditions. SUBJECTS: Subjects were enrolled in university physical education activity classes (N = 154), a health promotion and fitness undergraduate class (N = 52), and a commercial aerobic dance program (N = 68). MEASURES: The questionnaire, containing 157 items, assessed exercise orientation, wellness orientation, general self-esteem, physical self-esteem, self-reinforcement, expectancy values for exercise, and level of physical activity. RESULTS: Individuals who reported exercising to improve physical appearance and/or physical performance had higher control scores on the exercise scale; exercising for pleasure or social reasons served as suppressor variables. High control scores on wellness and exercise orientation were indicative of individuals less likely to positively self-reinforce their behavior. A high control score on the wellness scale was significantly related to lower general and physical self-esteem scores. Finally, higher physical self-esteem was significantly related to exercising for pleasure and athletic reasons; exercising to improve physical appearance served as a suppressor variable. CONCLUSIONS: These data strengthen the recommendation that health promotion professionals consider alternative approaches to promoting exercise and enhancing wellness.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
L K Field; M A Steinhardt
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  American journal of health promotion : AJHP     Volume:  7     ISSN:  0890-1171     ISO Abbreviation:  Am J Health Promot     Publication Date:    1992 Sep-Oct
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1994-09-22     Completed Date:  1994-09-22     Revised Date:  2010-03-24    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8701680     Medline TA:  Am J Health Promot     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  21-7     Citation Subset:  T    
Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas, Austin 78712.
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MeSH Terms
Body Image
Exercise / psychology*
Health Behavior*
Health Promotion*
Internal-External Control
Physical Fitness*
Regression Analysis
Self Concept*

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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