Document Detail

The "recommendations of 1928" and its background
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11639745     Owner:  HMD     Status:  MEDLINE    
In the "recommendations of the International X-ray Units Committee" published in 1928, the first international unit "Roentgen" was given without any specific definition of the physical quantity represented by the unit. This introduced confusion into the subsequent history of radiation units. The "recommendations" had another distinctive feature, i.e., more than half of the recommendations were concerned with the problems of X-ray measurement. Around 1925, almost all Roentgen societies and physics societies in the world regarded the ionization of air by X-ray as a basic phenomenon for the establishment of the unit. Many devices were proposed for counting the number of ions. O. Glasser and his joint research workers examined the accuracy of each apparatus to choose the best one. The results of their study were adopted in the "recommendations of 1928". In the meantime, owing to the Compton effect discovered in 1923, it had become difficult to relate the X-ray dose unconditionally with air ionization quantity. Consequently, the physical quantity represented by the unit "Roentgen" became difficult to specify, and much time was needed to resolve these problemss. Various sicknesses and lesions had been caused by the misuse of X-ray. To avoid the damage and to reproduce the conditions of treatment, physicians took it as a matter of urgency to standardize the international units. They thought that practical convenience should be given priority over the pursuit of physical precision in the standardization of units and measurements. These factors led to the vagueness of the physical quantity represented by "Roentgen" in the "recommendations of 1928".
Y Sugimoto
Publication Detail:
Type:  English Abstract; Historical Article; Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Kagakushi kenkyu. [Journal of the history of science, Japan     Volume:  32     ISSN:  0022-7692     ISO Abbreviation:  Kagakushi Kenkyu     Publication Date:  1993  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1995-08-04     Completed Date:  1995-08-04     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0326141     Medline TA:  Kagakushi Kenkyu     Country:  JAPAN    
Other Details:
Languages:  jpn     Pagination:  202-12     Citation Subset:  Q    
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MeSH Terms
History, 20th Century
Radiology / history
Radiometry / history*
X-Ray Therapy / history*

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