|The presence of germ cells in the semen of azoospermic, cryptozoospermic and severe oligozoospermic patients: stringent flow cytometric analysis and correlations with hormonal status.|
|PMID: 17610519 Owner: NLM Status: MEDLINE|
|OBJECTIVE: To understand the clinical significance of immature germ cells commonly found in ejaculates with low sperm counts by a novel and stringent flow cytometric quantitative method. PATIENTS/MEASUREMENTS: A total of 65 azoospermic, 38 cryptozoospermic and 42 severe oligozoospermic patients underwent routine hormone and semen analysis. Cells from each ejaculate were stained for DNA and mitochondria and analysed as spermatozoa (HC), round spermatids (1N), primary spermatocytes (4N) or diploid cells (2N). RESULTS: About 90% of HC particles were eliminated as contaminants of the spermatozoa population by the analysis of their laser light scatter pattern and mitochondria staining intensity. Ploidy identification accuracy was improved by selection of singlets and elimination of cell aggregates for analysis. Distribution peaks for HC, 1N and 4N cells were displayed in 53%, 56% and 25% ejaculates, respectively, with prevalence in severe oligozoospermia > cryptozoospermia > azoospermia. 1N cell numbers were correlated with 4N and HC cells. For HC and 1N cells, the number/ejaculate and the incidence of distribution peaks were correlated with serum testosterone levels, and inversely with FSH for HC, 1N and 4N cells, suggesting that the abnormal shedding of 1N and 4N germ cells is the consequence rather than the cause of spermatogenic failure in these patients. Ploidy data bear no association with clinical diagnosis except for Klinefelter patients. CONCLUSION: Whereas incidence of HC cells in azoospermic ejaculates may suggest minimal spermatogenic activity which evades detection by routine semen analysis, the presence of 1N and 4N cells in semen of patients provides noninvasive information about their spermatogenic status.|
|C H Yeung; L Beiglböck-Karau; F Tüttelmann; E Nieschlag|
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|Type: Journal Article Date: 2007-07-04|
|Title: Clinical endocrinology Volume: 67 ISSN: 0300-0664 ISO Abbreviation: Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) Publication Date: 2007 Nov|
|Created Date: 2007-10-23 Completed Date: 2008-04-30 Revised Date: -|
Medline Journal Info:
|Nlm Unique ID: 0346653 Medline TA: Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) Country: England|
|Languages: eng Pagination: 767-75 Citation Subset: IM|
|Institute of Reproductive Medicine, University of Münster, Münster, Germany. email@example.com|
|APA/MLA Format Download EndNote Download BibTex|
Azoospermia / pathology
DNA / analysis
Estradiol / blood
Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood
Germ Cells / pathology*
Infertility, Male / pathology*
Luteinizing Hormone / blood
Mitochondria / ultrastructure
Oligospermia / pathology
Prolactin / blood
Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin / analysis
Spermatids / pathology
Spermatocytes / pathology
Spermatozoa / pathology
Staining and Labeling
Testosterone / blood
|0/Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin; 50-28-2/Estradiol; 58-22-0/Testosterone; 9002-62-4/Prolactin; 9002-67-9/Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0/Follicle Stimulating Hormone; 9007-49-2/DNA|
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