Document Detail

Prefrontal space ratio in second- and third-trimester screening for trisomy 21.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22791586     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prefrontal space ratio (PFSR) in second- and third-trimester euploid fetuses and fetuses with trisomy 21.
METHODS: This was a retrospective study utilizing stored mid-sagittal two-dimensional images of second- and third-trimester fetal faces that were recorded during prenatal ultrasound examinations at the Department of Prenatal Medicine at the University of Tuebingen, Germany and at a private center for prenatal medicine in Nuremberg, Germany. For the normal range, 279 euploid pregnancies between 15 and 40 weeks' gestation were included. The results were compared with 91 cases with trisomy 21 between 15 and 40 weeks. For the ratio measurement, a line was drawn between the leading edge of the mandible and the maxilla (MM line) and extended in front of the forehead. The ratio of the distance between the leading edge of the skull and the leading edge of the skin (d1) to the distance between the skin and the point where the MM line was intercepted (d2) was calculated. The PFSR was determined by dividing d2 by d1.
RESULTS: In the euploid and trisomy 21 groups, the median gestational age at the time of ultrasound examination was 21.1 (range, 15.0-40.0) and 21.4 (range, 15.0-40.3) weeks, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that PFSR was independent of maternal and gestational age. In the euploid group, the mean PFSR was 0.97 ± 0.29. In fetuses with trisomy 21, the mean PFSR was 0.2 ± 0.38 (P < 0.0001). The PFSR was below the 5(th) centile in 14 (5.0%) euploid fetuses and in 72 (79.1%) fetuses with trisomy 21.
CONCLUSION: The PFSR is a simple and effective marker in second- and third-trimester screening for trisomy 21.
B Yazdi; J Sonek; C Oettling; M Hoopmann; H Abele; M Schaelike; K O Kagan
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Multicenter Study    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Volume:  41     ISSN:  1469-0705     ISO Abbreviation:  Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol     Publication Date:  2013 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-03-05     Completed Date:  2013-09-10     Revised Date:  2013-09-13    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9108340     Medline TA:  Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  262-6     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.
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MeSH Terms
Down Syndrome / embryology,  ultrasonography*
Face / embryology,  ultrasonography*
Fetal Diseases / ultrasonography*
Pregnancy Trimester, Second
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Prenatal Diagnosis / methods*
Retrospective Studies
Skull / embryology,  ultrasonography
Ultrasonography, Prenatal / methods*

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