Document Detail

The predictive validity of Expressed Emotions (EE) in schizophrenia. A 20-year prospective study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23158233     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
BACKGROUND: The level of expressed emotions in the family (EE) and components thereof (emotional over-involvement EOI, and critical comments CC) have been found to be related to treatment outcomes in psychotic patients. One point of interest is the dynamic of various outcomes in relation to initial EE, CC and EOI levels. METHOD: 43 individuals with diagnosis of schizophrenia were assessed at 1, 3, 7, 12 and 20-year follow-ups. The EE indicator was evaluated during the index hospitalization. Outcome indicators included: number of relapses, number and duration of in-patient rehospitalizations, and severity of psychopathological symptoms. RESULTS: 1) A high EE indicator was associated with a higher number of relapses in every follow-up and differences between the groups with low and high EE indicators proved significant after 3, 7, 12 and 20 years of the illness. 2) A high EE indicator was associated with a higher number of rehospitalizations after 3 and 7 years, and showed as a clear trend after 12 and 20 years. 3) A high level of CC was associated with a higher number of relapses. 4) The severity of positive symptoms increased only in the group with high CC. 5) The negative syndrome was not associated with EE, EOI or CC. CONCLUSIONS: The EE indicator may be considered a valid prolonged predictor of relapses and rehospitalizations. A high level of CC was associated with a higher number of relapses and intensification of the positive syndrome in both the short-term and long-term course of the illness.
Andrzej Cechnicki; Anna Bielańska; Igor Hanuszkiewicz; Artur Daren
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-11-15
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of psychiatric research     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1879-1379     ISO Abbreviation:  J Psychiatr Res     Publication Date:  2012 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-11-19     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376331     Medline TA:  J Psychiatr Res     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Community Psychiatry Unit, Chair of Psychiatry, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, 2/8 Sikorskiego sq., 31-115 Cracow, Poland. Electronic address:
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