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The practice of Korean medicine: an overview of clinical trials in acupuncture.
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PMID:  16136212     Owner:  NLM     Status:  PubMed-not-MEDLINE    
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Acupuncture, one of the Oriental medical therapeutic techniques that can be traced back at least 2500 years, is growing in popularity all over the world. Korea has continued to develop its own unique tradition of medicine throughout its long history, and has formed different types of acupuncture methods. The purpose of this review is to summarize clinical case studies in acupuncture and related therapies, such as acupressure, electric acupuncture, auricular acupuncture and moxibustion in Korea. A survey of Korean journals revealed that a total of 124 studies were published from 1983 to 2001. Results obtained from the survey showed that most clinical studies using acupuncture, electric acupuncture, moxibustion and other traditional therapies could alleviate a relatively broad range of medical problems. However, it should be emphasized that almost all clinical case studies published in various local journals did not follow the 'good clinical practice' with respect to regulatory aspects. Since they were not conducted using the randomized double-blinded controls with a large sample size, all the results should be considered as therapeutic indications. This review is an attempt to show the scope of acupuncture in our country and the kind of diseases, after many years of clinical experience, that were deemed valid targets for clinical trials.
Authors:
Yong-Suk Kim; Hyungjoon Jun; Younbyoung Chae; Hi-Joon Park; Bong Hyun Kim; Il-Moo Chang; Sung-Keel Kang; Hye-Jung Lee
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2005-08-03
Journal Detail:
Title:  Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM     Volume:  2     ISSN:  1741-427X     ISO Abbreviation:  Evid Based Complement Alternat Med     Publication Date:  2005 Sep 
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Created Date:  2005-09-01     Completed Date:  2005-10-17     Revised Date:  2009-11-18    
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Nlm Unique ID:  101215021     Medline TA:  Evid Based Complement Alternat Med     Country:  England    
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Languages:  eng     Pagination:  325-52     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, College of Oriental Medicine, Kangnam Korean Hospital Seoul, South Korea.
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Journal ID (nlm-ta): Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
Journal ID (publisher-id): Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
ISSN: 1741-427X
ISSN: 1741-4288
Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Received Day: 26 Month: 1 Year: 2005
Accepted Day: 04 Month: 7 Year: 2005
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Volume: 2 Issue: 3
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ID: 1193543
DOI: 10.1093/ecam/neh102
PubMed Id: 16136212

The Practice of Korean Medicine: An Overview of Clinical Trials in Acupuncture
Yong-Suk Kim1
Hyungjoon Jun1
Younbyoung Chae2
Hi-Joon Park3
Bong Hyun Kim4
Il-Moo Chang4
Sung-keel Kang5
Hye-Jung Lee2*
1Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, College of Oriental Medicine, Kangnam Korean HospitalSeoul, South Korea
2Department of Oriental Medical Science, Graduate School of East-West Medical ScienceSeoul, South Korea
3Department of Meridian and Acupuncture, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee UniversitySeoul, South Korea
4Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National UniversitySeoul, South Korea
5Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee UniversitySouth Korea
Correspondence: *For reprints and all correspondence: Hye-Jung Lee, KMD, PhD, Department of Oriental Medical Science, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seochonri, Kiheungeup, Younginshi, Kyungkido 449-701, South Korea. Tel: +82-31-201-2173; Fax: +82-31-206-9731; E-mail: hjlee@khu.ac.kr

Introduction

Acupuncture, one of the Oriental medical therapeutic techniques inherited from ancient East Asia, is gaining popularity in the West as an alternative and complementary therapeutic intervention (1). Acupuncture is now being used in Western medicine to treat postoperative-induced and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, postoperative dental pain, drug addiction, stroke rehabilitation and asthma (2). Korea has continued to develop its own unique traditional medicine throughout its long history, and has formed different types of acupuncture methods, apart from those of traditional Chinese medicine. An individualized approach based on constitutional energy traits and practical approaches applying new therapeutic modalities have been developed for treatment of disorders (3).

A large number of clinical studies using acupuncture have been performed to demonstrate its efficacy for many kinds of diseases, such as pain (headache, facial pain, neck pain, shoulder pain, lower back pain and knee pain), stroke, facial palsy and other diseases in Korea. A wide range of control groups were used in these studies. Acupuncture and acupuncture-related therapies have been compared with various forms of control acupuncture, standard care, no treatment, baseline conditions and placebo acupuncture. These inconsistencies make the task of designing and performing systematic reviews or meta-analyses more difficult. However, non-controlled clinical trials might also be useful for the overview that they provide of what is known so far, with data that may inform future research. This review is an attempt to show a variety of applications for acupuncture treatments performed by the traditional Korean medical sector.


Clinical Studies Using Acupuncture Treatment in Korea
Acupuncture for Pain
Headache

Lee and Kim (4) analyzed the effect of acupuncture treatment at trigger points in 27 patients with headache. Lee et al. (5) compared the effect of acupuncture at trigger points with the effect of acupuncture at remote acupuncture points in patients who were diagnosed as having tension-type headaches. A clinical study of auricular acupuncture was also done in 55 patients with headaches (6). Clinical studies of acupuncture and auricular acupuncture for tension-type headaches were also performed (7,8) (Table 1).

Facial Pain

Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a musculoskeletal problem of the masticatory system and is quite commonly treated by acupuncture in the general population. It was reported that 8 and 10 cases, respectively, of TMD were treated by acupuncture (9,10). Wang et al. (11) treated by Dong-Qi acupuncture and subjectively evaluated TMD and facial pain (Table 2).

Neck Pain

Chun and Lee (12) treated patients with chronic neck pain by using electric acupuncture (0.3 ? 40 mm, 3.5?12 Hz, 9 V). Kim and Lee (13) compared the group treated by both acupuncture and manipulation (chuna) treatment with the group only treated by acupuncture. A clinical study investigated the clinical applications of Oriental medical therapies including acupuncture treatment together with herbal therapy and hot pack for patients complaining of cervical pain caused by traffic accidents (14). It was reported that acupuncture treatment was effective in 50 patients with cervical pain (15). Lee and Lee (16) treated 25 patients with neck pain with electric acupuncture together with herbal therapy, cupping therapy and hot pack. It was also reported that acupuncture was effective in treating 50 patients with herniated cervical disc (17) (Table 3).

Shoulder Pain

Forty-three patients suffering from frozen shoulder during physical exercise were treated by acupuncture, moxibustion and electric acupuncture, and evaluated with Apley scratch test. A total of 16.3% of them reported that the results of treatment were excellent and 30.2% of them reported that they were good (18). Cho and Lee (19) showed the correlation between digital infrared thermography image (DITI) data and changes in clinical symptoms after acupuncture treatment in patients with frozen shoulder (Table 4) (Fig. 1).

Low Back Pain

A series of 20 cases with lumbar herniated disc disease were treated by acupuncture (20). It was reported that acupuncture and herbal medicine alleviated the symptoms of the herniation of lumbar intervertebral disc (21?25). It was also reported that bee venom acupuncture (BVA) was beneficial for treating herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) (26). Park et al. (27) performed clinical studies using acupuncture and manipulation treatment on 30 HIVD patients. It was found that microcurrent electrical neuromuscular stimulation was significantly effective in decreasing the visual analog scores of patients with lower back pain (28). Park et al. (29) reported a clinical study of the stability of the lumbosacral angle of 69 patients suffering from lower back pain. The morphological changes were demonstrated by computed tomographic scan examination of acute HIVD patients who underwent Oriental medical treatment (30).

A clinical study compared acupuncture with electric acupuncture for patients with HIVD (31). Park and Lee (32) compared the effect of electric acupuncture with the effect of Dong-si acupuncture on patients with HIVD. Lee and Hwang (33) compared electric acupuncture with electric acupuncture and Saam acupuncture in HIVD patients. Yoon et al. (34) compared acupuncture at A-shi points with acupuncture on acupuncture points in HIVD patients. Chae et al. (35) compared conventional acupuncture with Eight constitution acupuncture and demonstrated that Eight constitutional acupuncture was more beneficial than conventional acupuncture for the treatment of HIVD patients.

Electric acupuncture decreased the frequency of radiating pain in lumbar spondylosis (36). Clinical studies evaluated Oriental medical treatment and manipulation therapy in patients with scoliosis (37,38). Kim (39) reported the results of 96 patients suffering from sciatica with lower back pain treated by acupuncture and herbal medicine. It was reported that acupuncture, moxibustion and herbal medicine were useful for acute back pain (40). Lee and Yin (41) also reported a clinical study of BVA on ankylosing spondylitis. Lee et al. (42) performed a clinical study on acupuncture for stable thoracolumbar vertebral fractures. It was reported that acupuncture, electric acupuncture, acupuncture at Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue were useful for the treatment of thoracolumbar compression fracture (43?45). Han (46) treated degenerated stenosis patients (37 cases), and Kim et al. (47) evaluated the clinical results of the spondylolisthesis patients treated by Oriental medical methods.

Lee et al. evaluated acupuncture treatment for HIVD and stable compression fracture patients using DITI (48,49). Cho and Kim (50) compared the acupuncture with electric acupuncture for HIVD patients using DITI. Hur et al. (51) investigated changes in the clinical symptoms of patients with spondylolisthesis after acupuncture treatment and evaluated alterations in DITI. A clinical study also reported a relationship between cigarette smoking and the result of Oriental medical treatment for lower back pain (52). Heo and co-workers studied the treatment of lower back pain and sciatica and found some correlation in the rate of alleviation with alterations in Moire topography (53,54) (Table 5).

Knee Joint Pain

It was reported that acupuncture was useful for the treatment of degenerative arthritis of knee joints (55?57). Woo et al. (58) evaluated the clinical effect of acupuncture on microtraumatic injuries of the knee joint. Kim and Lee compared acupuncture with BVA for osteoarthritis (59,60). Hwang et al. (61) measured the change of C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) factor, and the satisfactory assessment after BVA treatment in RA patients. Hwang (62) treated RA patients with herbal acupuncture (HA) and evaluated CRP, ESR, RA factor and immunoglobulin G and M (Table 6).

Other Painful Diseases

Electrical acupuncture stimulation was very useful to relieve pain that had not responded to various conventional medications including nerve blocks, neurosurgical intervention and neuropolitics (63). Cho et al. (64) compared acupuncture treatment and analgesics in postthoracotomy pain control. It was reported that venesection, a therapeutic method of sucking out non-physiological blood, alleviated pain induced by blood circulation dysfunction (65). Kim et al. (66) compared acupuncture treatment with trigger point treatment in ankle sprain patients. Bang et al. (67) carried out a clinical study on patients with humeral lateral epicondylitis or tennis elbow. Seung and Ahn (68) investigated the effect of moxibustion on the immune activity in the treatment of patients. Acupuncture treatment was very beneficial for acute gout (69). It was also demonstrated that acupuncture at acupoints on the non-injured side were as effective as acupuncture at acupoints on the injured side in ankle sprain patients (70) (Table 7) (Fig. 2).

Acupuncture for Stroke
Stroke

Ha et al. (71) reported a clinical study of acupuncture and scalp acupuncture on stroke patients (29 cases). Lee et al. (72) evaluated the change of blood pressure and body temperature of the stroke patients after venesection at Sybsun points, 10 acupoints located at the tips of all fingers and demonstrated that venesection at Sybsun points could alleviate hypertension in stroke patients. Park et al. (73) examined electrical stimulation at GV26 and CV24 on blood pressure, heart rate and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in ischemic stroke patients with transcranial doppler sonography. Ahn et al. (74) investigated change in 24 h blood pressure after auricular acupuncture treatment in stroke patients using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. Kang et al. (75) compared acupuncture at ST36 and LI11 with stimulation at non-acupoints near these acupoints for the modulation of hypertension of acute stroke patients. Moon et al. (76) compared acupuncture at ipsilateral points with that at contralateral points on the cerebral blood flow (CBF) in ischemic stroke patients (Table 8).

Poststroke Diseases

Electric acupuncture could alleviate shoulder pain in cerebrovascular attack patients (77). It was demonstrated that BVA at LI15 and SI10 decreased visual analog scale of pain severity and increased painless passive range of motion of shoulder eternal rotation in hemiplegic shoulder pain patients (78). Kang and Baik (79) compared the therapeutic value of transcutanous electrical nerve stimulation with interferential current therapy, infrared or hot pack treatments for shoulder pain in cerebrovascular attack patients. Lee and Lee (80) evaluated the effect of acupuncture and electric acupuncture on shoulder hand syndrome by using DITI. Kang et al. (81) examined the balanced bladder time and residual urine volume and demonstrated the clinical efficacy of moxibustion at CV3, CV4 and CV6 in patients with voiding dysfunction after a cerebrovascular accident (Table 9).

Acupuncture for Facial Palsy

Acupuncture treatment was beneficial in 72 cases of patients with facial paralysis (82). Moreover, electric acupuncture was better than needling in the treatment of patients with peripheral facial nerve paralysis (83). The effect of Hominis placenta acupuncture, a kind of HA, on Bell's palsy was reported (84). It was demonstrated that Saam acupuncture at liver and stomach tonification points could treat peripheral facial palsy (85). Cho et al. observed the change of clinical symptoms and DITI, showing the benefits of acupuncture and herbal medicine in patients with Bell's palsy (86,87).

Kang et al. compared a group treated by Oriental-Western treatment with a group treated by Oriental medical therapy by evaluating House?Brackmeann grading system and made a detailed evaluation of facial symmetry of Pillsbury and Fisch (88,89). Kim et al. (89) compared a group treated by both acupuncture and herbal medicine with a group treated by acupuncture in patients of facial nerve paralysis and demonstrated that the symptoms were improved in both groups. Kwon et al. (90) compared a group treated by conventional Oriental medicine therapy with a group treated by conventional Oriental medicine therapy and indirect moxibustion at ST4 and ST8 in peripheral facial paralysis patients (Table 10).

Acupuncture for Other Conditions
Eye Disease (Opthalopathy)

Acupuncture and venesection were useful in treating 22 patients who suffered from acute infectious conjunctivitis (91). Kim and Chae (92) reported 32 patients with cataract or glaucoma who were treated by Oriental medicine and acupuncture. The therapeutic effect of acupuncture and moxibustion on the sight of near-sighted patients was also reported (93,94). Clinical studies were carried out to demonstrate the effect of Oriental medicine and acupuncture on amblyopia (95) (Table 11).

Nose Disease (Rhinopathy)

Acupuncture was effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis in 30 patients (96). Nasal acupuncture therapy was investigated to treat the chronic paranasal sinusitis and nasal obstruction (97,98) (Table 12).

Ear Disease (Otopathy)

Clinical studies were carried out to investigate acupuncture, moxibustion and venesection for tinnitus (99,100). It was reported that acupuncture at TE5, GI41, TE6 SI5, GI38, KI2 and venesection improved symptoms of patients with otitis media with effusion (101) (Table 13).

Skin Disease (Dermatology)

It was reported that acupuncture and herbal medicine were effective in the treatment of acne in 125 patients (102). It was also found that acupuncture and herbal medicine improved the symptoms of the acne patients (103) (Table 14).

Hypertension

Clinical studies with auricular acupuncture were performed on 23 patients with hypertension (104). Lee et al. (105) examined moxibustion at LI11 and CV4 for blood pressure of hypertension patients (Table 15).

Smoking and Drinking Cessation

Auricular acupuncture to stop smoking (106?110). Kim et al. investigated the effect of auricular acupuncture on cessation of drinking in alcoholic patients (111,112). It was reported that auricular acupuncture and herbal medicine were effective for quitting drinking (113) (Table 16).

Obesity

Electric acupuncture decreased body weight, abdominal length, size of waist and body mass index (114,115). Lee and Kim (116) compared auricular acupuncture combined with acupuncture with auricular acupuncture combined with herbal medicine for the treating obesity by measuring body weight and percentage of body fat (Table 17).

Nausea and Vomiting

Auricular acupuncture on sympathetic, stomach, shenmen and occiput points for postoperative nausea and vomiting in 100 female patients undergoing transabdominal hysterectomy. It was demonstrated that electric acupuncture at PC6 and PC7 was very effective in preventing nausea, retching and vomiting (118) (Table 18).

Obstetrics and Gynecology

Electric stimulation at acupuncture points significantly shortened the delivery time and attenuated the pain during delivery (119). Moreover, endometrial curettage was successfully performed on 31 female patients under acupuncture anesthesia (120) (Table 19).

Others

Moxibustion could have an effect on peripheral circulation (121). Ahn et al. (122) examined the temperature change of external genitalia in patients with impotence after herbal medicine and acupuncture treatment. Auricular acupuncture altered hormone and energy metabolism during weight control of athletes (123) (Table 20).

Acupuncture for Human Study

Acupuncture stimulation significantly decreased electrical resistance under the adiaphoresis, suggesting that the decrease of electrical resistance is caused not only by sweat secretion but also by other internal resistance (124). Youn et al. (125) reported a strong correlation between acupuncture at KI6 and cortical activation in the motor-related region of the human brain by using fMRI. Acupuncture at LI4 in the left hand increased regional CBF (rCBF) in the right parietal lobe, middle temporal gyrus and inferior occipital lobe, and electric acupuncture at ST36 on the right side increased rCBF in the left temporal lobe, the inferior frontal lobe and cerebellar hemisphere using single photon emission computed tomography (126,127). It was shown that acupuncture at LI4 and LV3 could ipsilaterally enlarge a blind spot map (128).

Several studies were performed to examine if acupuncture at LI4 changed skin temperature in the LI4 area of the hand, LI11 area of the arm, LI20 area of the face and ST25 area of the abdomen by using DITI (129?135). It was also examined to see whether the alteration of acupuncture manipulation method could change the temperature in these regions of the body (136,137). Other studies were performed to investigate the effects of acupuncture at LU9 by thermal change in the five shu points or LU9 and LU1 areas of lung meridian (138,139). Yook et al. (140) examined whether HA at BL12, BL13, BL41 and BL42 could affect local thermal change by using DITI. Kim et al. (141) examined whether acupuncture at the WuHu acupoint could affect thermal change in the ankle region (Table 21).


Discussion

A large number of clinical studies have used acupuncture; electric acupuncture, moxibustion and other traditional therapies to target a relatively broad range of medical problems, primarily pain and stroke. Moreover, acupuncture has been widely used for treatment of facial palsy, obesity, hypertension, nausea and vomiting, and many other diseases. However, as mentioned in the beginning of this report, the studies had various weaknesses such as inadequate sample size, inappropriate control treatment, inadequate follow-up, inadequate control of non-specific effects, inadequate reporting of side effects and a few studies' failure to replicate results. These concerns make it difficult to draw clear conclusions about efficacy in most areas where acupuncture has been tested.

A number of systematic reviews on acupuncture for specific conditions have recently been published, including an extensive systematic review on chronic pain, with a far reaching search strategy and a way of scoring trial methodology (142). Recently, the best evidence synthesis review showed that there was only limited evidence that acupuncture is more effective than no treatment (waiting list) and inconclusive evidence that acupuncture is more effective than inert placebo, sham acupuncture or standard medical care (143). In addition, the evidence of rigorous randomized controlled trials showed that there was no compelling evidence to show that acupuncture is effective in stroke rehabilitation (144). Yet, as clinicians who treat patients with acupuncture, we have success in these treatments where no efficacy is found. This is due to a complex set of problems at the heart of which is the establishment of a standard for the treatment of the control group. This article is not a systematic review; rather it is an overview of the clinical trials, presented in the hopes of introducing overall information about clinical studies in Korea to the English-speaking world.

This review describes a number of clinical studies that were performed to compare the therapeutic effects of different kinds of acupuncture under certain conditions. Conventional acupuncture was compared with electric acupuncture, auricular acupuncture, BVA and manipulation. These comparative studies of different kinds of acupuncture are required in order to proceed with the most adequate method in the future. Since more than two therapies were simultaneously performed to treat the disorders in some studies, it is not likely to demonstrate the efficacy of pure acupuncture apart from other treatments. For instance, given that both acupuncture and auricular acupuncture were effective to treat tension-type headache patients, it is impossible to clarify the extent of the therapeutic benefit of acupuncture. Therefore, in order to investigate the therapeutic benefits of acupuncture, it is necessary to establish a group treated by acupuncture alone.

From the above clinical studies, it is possible to summarize the originality of Korean acupuncture by describing both of its characteristic approaches?individualized and practical. Firstly, a number of clinical studies in Korea have shown the benefits of individualized acupuncture treatment, such as Saam, Taegeuk or Eight constitutions acupuncture (35). Patel et al. (145) noted that individualized treatments significantly favored acupuncture, whereas formulaic approaches, in which all the patients received the same treatment, showed no significant difference. However, in order to demonstrate its superiority, more rigorous and well-designed randomized controlled clinical trials are urgently needed. Secondly, HA-like BVA have been used to treat a variety of painful conditions. HA is a new method of acupuncture where distilled herbal decoction is extracted and purified to be administered to an acupuncture point for stimulation. HA simultaneously exerts pharmacological actions from a bioactive compound isolated from herbal medicine and mechanical actions from acupuncture stimulation. The Korean medical world considers HA as a promising therapeutic method for various diseases (84,140).

An individualized approach based on constitutional energy traits have been widely applied to a number of clinical trials in Korean medicine. HA have also been developed as a new therapeutic modality using integrated and practical approaches. Korean acupuncture in its own way is making a contribution to the emerging need for individualized and integrated approaches to acupuncture. In closing, we stress the need for randomized controlled studies and express our hope that this view into Korean traditional medical practice will lead to evidence-based studies that could form the basis for a meta-analysis in the near future.


We are grateful to Dr. Nam-Il Kim for presentation of the Figures. This study was supported by a grant of the Oriental Medicine R&D Project, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (0405-OM00-0815-0001).


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53. Heo SY,Kim KH. Investigation on the correlation improvement rate of symptoms with Moire topography analytic improvement rateJ Kor Manual Med 2000;1:55–65.
54. Heo SY,Kang HS. Investigation on chuna treatment for low back pain and sciaticaJ East-West Med 1999;24:14–26.
55. Lee GM,Seong NG. A clinical study of the effects of the therapy on knee joints with osteoarthritisJ Kor Oriental Med Soc 1991;12:147–59.
56. Koh KS,Kang SK. Clinical observation on degenerative arthritis of knee jointJ Kor Oriental Med Soc 1987;8:66–72.
57. Na CS,Ahn BC. A clinical study on degenerative arthritis of knee jointJ Kor Oriental Med Soc 1992;13:202–11.
58. Woo YM,Lee JH,Kim JM,Nam Y. Clinical study of acupucnture effect on microtraumatic injuries of the knee jointJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 2000;17:88–99.
59. Wang WH,Ahn KB,Lim JK,Jang HS. Clinical investigation compared with the effects of the bee venom acupuncture on knee joint with osteoarthritisJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 2001;18:35–47.
60. Kim JH,Lee JD. Clinical research of bee venom acupuncture analgesic effect on osteoarthritisJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 1999;16:25–37.
61. Hwang YJ,Lee GM,Hwang WJ,Seo EM,Jang JD,Yang GB,et al. Clinical research of bee venom acupuncture effects on rheumatoid arthritisJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 2001;18:33–42.
62. Hwang WJ. Clinical study of rheumatoid arthritisJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 1995;12:281–90.
63. Shim JC,Kim YJ,Suh JK,Chung CW,Kang GB,Hwang YH,et al. Clinical study of electrical stimulation of the peripheral nerveJ Kor Soc Anesth 1984;17:126–35.
64. Cho KS,Kim SC,Lee JY,Sohn SS,Park DS. The effect of acupuncture on the post-thoracotomy pain controlKor J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1997;30:187–94.
65. Choi H,Moon SJ. A clinical study on reviewing pain of acupunctureJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 1983;1:40–5.
66. Kim YI,Kim YH,Lee H,Lee BR. Clinical comparison studies on 26 cases of patient with ankle sprain with acupuncture treatment group and trigger point treatment groupJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 2001;18:50–9.
67. Bang DH,Chang HS,Han SW,Ryu SH,Lee IG. A clinical observation of patients with humeral lateral epicondylititsJ Kor Oriental Med Soc 1992;13:224–9.
68. Seung JW,Ahn CB. A study on human immune activity of the arthritis and multi-neuritis through different moxibustion methodsJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 1991;8:395–403.
69. Choi YT,Lee HJ. A study of acupuncture treatment effect on the acute gout diseaseJ Kor Oriental Med Soc 1989;10:132–7.
70. Ahn KB,Wang WH,Lim JK,Jang HS. Clinical study of acupuncture effect by measuring amperage from chong pointsJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 2001;18:13–21.
71. Ha CH,Han SG,Cho MR,Ryu CR,Lee BR. A clinical study on 29 cases with stroke treated by common acupuncture therapy and scalp acupunctureJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 2001;18:82–90.
72. Lee KJ,Koo BS,Kim YS,Kang JK,Moon SK,Koh CN,et al. Effects of venesection at the Sybsun-points on blood pressure and body temperature in patients with strokeJ Kor Oriental Med Soc 2000;21:62–7.
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74. Ahn CH,Bae HS,Roh JH,Moon SK,Koh CN,Cho KH,et al. Effects of auricular acupuncture on the mild hypertensionJ Kor Oriental Med Soc 2000;20:93–7.
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76. Moon SK,Cho KH,Koh CN,Kim YS,Bae HS,Lee KS. Effects of opposing needling on upper limb on cerebral blood flow in ischemic stroke patientsKyunghee Med 2000;16:94–101.
77. Song JC,Jung SH,Lee JS,Kim SS,Shin HD. Clinical study of the effect of electroacupuncture on shoulder pain of the cerebrovascular attack patientsJ Oriental Rehabil Med 1999;9:41–57.
78. Yin CS,Nam SS,Kim YS,Lee JD,Kim CH,Koh HK. Effects of honey bee venom acupuncture therapy on poststroke hemiplegic shoulder painJ Kor Inst Herbal Acu 2000;3:213–32.
79. Kang JC,Baik TH. A comparative study of effects using physical treatment apparatus and diagnosis of shoulder pain on cerebrovascular attack patientsKor Int Med Soc 1999;20:244–60.
80. Lee SH,Lee YH. Clinical study with thermography on shoulder hand syndrome after strokeJ Kor Oriental Med Soc 1997;18:25–39.
81. Kang KS,Jeong EJ,Moon SK,Koh CN,Cho KH,Kim YS,et al. Clinical study on the effects of moxibustion for post-stroke voiding dysfunctionJ Kor Oriental Med Soc 2000;21:236–41.
82. Lee YK,Lee BR. Clinical studies on 72 cases of patient with facial paralysisJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 1998;15:1–12.
83. Lee SW,Han SW. Clinical study of facial nerve paralysis through electroacupuncture treatmentJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 1999;16:149–63.
84. Yun JH,Yook TH,Song BY. The effect of Hominis placenta herbal acupunctureJ Kor Inst Herbal Acu 2000;3:89–99.
85. Lee KM. Combined treatment method for peripheral facial paralysis: report on 85 casesJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 1998;15:21–9.
86. Cho EH,Cho NG,Hur TY,Cheon MN. Clinical evaluation of acupuncture and herb medication on Bell's palsy by DITIJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 2000;17:19–30.
87. Song BY,Sohn IC,Kim KS. Clinical diagnostic study on prognosis of Bell's palsy with the digital infrared thermal imageJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 1999;16:13–35.
88. Kang MJ,Kim KH,Hwang HS. Comparative clinical study between oriental medicine and oritental western medicine treatment on facial nerve paralysisJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 2000;17:55–66.
89. Kim CG,Park SD,Kim KH. Comparative study between acupuncture and acupuncture-oriental herb medicine treatment on facial nerve paralysisJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 2001;18:10–22.
90. Kwon SJ,Song HS,Kim KH. The influence of moxibustion and basic compound therapy on peripheral facial paralysisJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 2000;17:160–71.
91. Sim MK,Hwang WJ,Lim KS. Clinical study of acupuncture and venesection on acute infectious conjunctivitisJ Kor Oriental Med Soc 1993;14:133–8.
92. Kim KJ,Chae BY. A clinical analysis on glaucoma, cataract and causing blindness by oriental medical therapyJ Oriental Med Surg Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1997;10:340–8.
93. Choi DY,Kim JK,Kim SS. A clinical study of the effect of acupuncture and moxibustion treatment for the near-sightedness. KorJ Oriental Med Pathol 1999;13:119–23.
94. Chae BY. The clinical study on decrease of visual acuityJ Oriental Med 1997;2:93–108.
95. Kim SS,Kim JK,Choi DY. A clinical study of the effect of oriental medicine and acupuncture treatment for the amblyopiaJ Kor Oriental Med Soc 2000;20:23–8.
96. Kim SI,Park DI. A clinical study on allergic rhinitisKor Int Med Soc 1998;19:353–63.
97. Seo JC,Lee JD. Clinical study on chronic paranasal sinitis by nasal acupunctureJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 2000;17:99–105.
98. Kim YB,Yoon SH. A clinical observation of the nasal acupuncture therapy on nasal obstructionJ Oriental Med Surg Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1999;12:205–11.
99. Park GH,Han YM,Ahn SH,Hwang CH. Effect of tinnitus after bleeding, acupuncture, moxa, and laser treatmentJ Oriental Med Surg Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1999;12:396–407.
100. Kim GJ. A clinical analysis on the treatment efficiency of tinnitus by types of bianzhengJ Oriental Med Surg Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1999;12:182–8.
101. Lee HB,Oh SJ,Kim SK. Clinical study on otitis media with effusion by acupucntureJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 2001;18:92–8.
102. Chae BY. The clinical study of acne patientsJ Oriental Med Surg Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1998;11:251–68.
103. Kim JS,Kim GJ. The clinical observation of 8 cases of acnes diseasesJ Oriental Med Surg Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 2001;14:66–75.
104. Byun JY,Ahn SG. Effects of the auricular acupuncture on the blood pressureJ Kor Oriental Med Soc 1996;17:418–26.
105. Lee BH,Kim CH,Seo JC,Youn HM,Jang KJ,Song CH,et al. The effects of moxibustion on blood pressure of hypertentsion patientsJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 2001;18:70–6.
106. Hwang BT,Hwang WJ,Shin SY. Clinical research of the acupuncture therapy on stop-smokingJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 1994;11:265–74.
107. Ahn SG,Kim SC,Lee MH,Kim KS. A clinical research of the auricular acupuncture therapyJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 1993;10:175–90.
108. Choi SC,Hwang CY. Effects on stop of smoking in adolescents by auricular acupuncture therapyJ Oriental Med Surg Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1999;12:369–85.
109. Choi DY. Clinical study of effect of auricular acupuncture on stoping smokingJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 1996;13:202–11.
110. Lee JD,Choi DY,Park DS. Clinical research of the auricular acupuncture therapy on stop-smokingJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 1992;9:17–29.
111. Kim JD,Kwan CC,Lim NC. Clinical study of the effect of ear acupuncture on 233 alcoholicsJ Kor Oriental Med Soc 1992;13:124–50.
112. Lee JH,Kim YC,Woo HJ. Clinical study on 133 cases of temperance (quit-drinking) therapyJ Oriental Med 1998;3:59–69.
113. Park JH,Peun SH. Clinical study of auricular acupuncture and herbal medicine in the treatment of alcoholismJ East-West Med 1996;21:1–15.
114. Lee SR,Lee KG. A clinical research of abdominal obesity by the electric acupuncture therapyJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 1996;17:336–44.
115. Jeong SH,Nam SS,Kim YS,Lee JD,Choi DY,Koh HK,et al. A clinical study on case of nine obesity patients by elecroacupuncture therapyJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 1999;16:39–56.
116. Lee ES,Kim YS. The effect of acupuncture treatment on weight regulationJ Oriental Rehabil Med 1996;6:365–77.
117. Kim YS,Kim CH,Kim KS. Effect of auricular acupuncture on postoperative nausea and vomitingJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 1996;17:331–6.
118. Kim KS,Kim DS,Shin KI,Kim YS. Effect of electric acupuncture stimulation of PC6 and PC7 antiemetic point on postoperative nausea and vomitingJ Kor Soc Anesth 1995;28:433–40.
119. Kim SW,Nam SS,Lee SK,Kim KS,Kim JK. The effects of electrostimulation on acupuncture loci upon duration of labor in primiparaKyunghee Med 1999;15:198–202.
120. Kim JK,Kim SW. A clinical study on the effects of acupuncture anesthesia upon 31 cases of curettageKyunghee Med 1992;8:276–85.
121. Hwang WJ,Yang GB. The study on the effects of moxibustion on peripheral blood circulationJ Kor Oriental Med Soc 1997;18:499–505.
122. Ahn YM,Ahn SY,Doo HK. The change of temperature of external genitalia at the patients with impotence by using penile DITIKyunghee Med 1998;14:79–88.
123. You WK,Lee MJ,Oh JG. The effects of auricular acupuncture for obesity on the change of hormone and energy metabolism during weight control of veteran taekwondo playersJ Oriental Rehabil Med 2000;10:133–45.
124. Park KM. Influence of acupuncture stimulation on electrical resistance under adiaphoresis induced by regional anaesthesiaJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 2000;17:130–8.
125. Youn JH,Hwang MS,Bae GT,Lee SH,Lee SD,Jang JH,et al. The new finding on BOLD response of motor acupoint KI6 by fMRIJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 2001;18:5.
126. Kim ID,Oh HH,Song HC,Bom HS,Byun JY,Ahn SG. The nuclear medical study on the effect of ST36 electroacupuncture on cerebral blood flowJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 2001;18:18–26.
127. Oh HH,Byun JY,Kim ID,Ahn SG,Mun HC,Hwang WJ,et al. The nuclear medical study on the effect of LI4 acupuncture on cerebral blood flowJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 2001;18:46–54.
128. Woo YM,Nam Y. The practical study of the contralateral therapeutic theory in acupuncture approach about the changes in the blind spot mapping pre and post acupunctureJ Oriental Med Surg Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 2000;13:200–10.
129. Lee SH,Lee JD,Lee YH. Thermographic study on the effects of acupuncture at Hapkok (LI4) in normal casesJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 1995;12:49–64.
130. Sohn IC,Kim DM,Kim HJ,Lee HS,Kim KS. Effects on the thermal changes of Hap-Kok (LI4) and Chun-Choo (ST25) following acupuncture on Hap-Kok (LI4) in manJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 1998;19:66–88.
131. Han MC,Chung HC,Koo ST,Ahn SH,Kim KS,Sohn IC. Effects of acupuncture at left Hap-kok (LI4) on the skin temperature changes of Young-Hyang (LI20) areaJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 1999;16:57–68.
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133. Han MJ,Chung HC,Koo ST,Ahn SH,Kim KS,Sohn IC. Effects of acupuncture at left Hap-Kok (LI4) on the skin temperature changes of Young-Hyang (LI20) areaJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 1999;16:57–68.
134. Hwang JH,Ahn SH,Kim KS,Sohn IC. Effects of acupuncture at Hap-Kok (LI4) on the thermal changes of abdominal surface in manJ Kor Acu Mox Soc 1999;16:445–72.
135. Yun JH,Hwang CY,Lim KS. Effects on the thermal changes of the face follow electroacupuncture on Hapkok (LI4) and Samgan (LI3)J Oriental Med Surg Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1999;12:222–47.
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Figures

[Figure ID: fig1]
Figure 1 

?Acu-moxibustion Being Easy to Learn?, published in the Ching dynasty, 18th century. (Courtesy of Dr Kim Nam-Il, Department of Medical History, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea.)



[Figure ID: fig2]
Figure 2 

An excerpt from ?The Simplified Diagram of Mingtang? published in the Ming Dynasty. ?Mingtang? means mansion-house or hall and acupoints are called ?the house of Qi?. This may be another correlating factor between ?acupoint? and ?Mingtang?. Since ?Mingtang? gradually became a substitute for ?acupoint?, the so-called ?Mingtang diagram? generally referred to ?the diagram of acupoints?. (Courtesy of Dr Kim Nam-Il, Department of Medical History, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea.)



Tables
[TableWrap ID: tbl1] Table 1 

Acupuncture for headache


Author name(s) Condition treated Number of points Type of acupuncture Length and number of Tx Other treatments Assessment Results of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Byun and Ahn (6) Headache 55 AA 2/1 week various times None Classified into five groups (excellent, good, moderate, slight and unchanged) by clinical evaluation Recovered, 9.1%; good, 36.4%; moderate, 27.3%; slight, 12.7%; unchanged, 4.5% N/A
Kim and Kim (7) Strained headache 75 CA (0.25 ? 40 mm), AA (1/2?4 days) 15 min None Classified into three groups (excellent, fair and unchanged) by clinical evaluation Excellent, 12%; fair, 62.7%; unchanged, 5.3% N/A
Lee and Kim (4) Headache 27 Trigger point Tx Stimulation by needle or 15 min various times Infrared Classified into five groups (good, fair, poor, bad and unknown) by clinical evaluation Good, 25.93%; fair, 48.15%; poor, 7.41%; bad, 3.70%; unknown, 14.81% N/A
Kim et al. (8) Chronic headache 36 CA (0.25 ? 30 mm), AA (2/1 week) 20 min 3/1 week for 4 weeks None Assessment through questionnaires and self-rating headache score CA and AA were effective Tx on long-term analgesics-abused headache patients, especially tension-type headache group P < 0.05
Lee et al. (5) Tension-type headache 40 20 Trigger point Tx Stimulation by needle or 10 min for 4 times Infrared, exercise VAS No difference between groups N/S
20 Remote acupuncture point needling: Dong-si acupuncture 10 min for 4 times

CA, classical acupuncture; AA, auricular acupuncture; Tx, treatment; VAS, visual analog score; N/A, not applicable; N/S, not significant.


[TableWrap ID: tbl2] Table 2 

Acupuncture for facial pain (temporomandibular joint disease)


Author name(s) Number of points Type of acupuncture Length and number of Tx Other treatments Assessment Results of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Kim and Kim (9) 8 CA Various; 3?4 times Infrared, self-stretch teaching and Herb-med Clinical evaluation Report of each patient (acupuncture treatment was effective) N/A
Byun et al. (10) 10 CA (0.25 ? 30 mm), AA, EA and depletion of blood (some cases) 15 min 1/2 days various times US, aqualizer medium size, etc Examine changes of symptoms, X-ray and DITI Report of each patient (acupuncture treatment was effective) N/A
Wang et al. (11) 40 CA (0.3 ? 40 mm) 10 min 1?2/1 week various times Dong-Qi acupuncture treatment (move mouth during acupuncture stimulation) Analyze function and clinical improvement (by subjective assessment paper) Most of them (questionnaires in subjective assessment paper) were significantly improved P < 0.05, P < 0.01

Herb-med, herbal medicine; EA, electrical acupuncture; US, ultrasound; DITI, digital infrared thermographic imaging.


[TableWrap ID: tbl3] Table 3 

Acupuncture for cervical pain


Author name(s) Condition treated Number of points Type of acupuncture Length and number of Tx Other treatments Assessment Results of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Chun and Lee (12) Cervical pain 34 EA (0.3 ? 40 mm low frequent, 3.5?12 Hz, 9 V) 15 min various times Infrared, chuna and Herb-med (some cases) Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by change of symptoms, ROM, physical examination Excellent, 11.8%; good, 52.9%; fair, 20.6%; poor, 14.7% N/A
Lee and Lee (16) Neck pain 25 CA, EA (1?25 Hz, constant or intermittent) 20?30 min various times Herb-med, chuna (10 min, 4/1 week) and cupping therapy, EST, TENS, micro wave, hot pack, C-traction, etc. Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by change of symptoms, ROM, physical examination Excellent, 16%; good, 44%; fair, 24%; failure, 16% N/A
Lee et al. (15) Cervical pain 50 CA 20?30 min various times Herb-med, negative (1/1 day), chuna (10 person, 2?3/1 week) Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and failure) by changes of symptoms, ROM and physical examination Excellent, 6%; good, 32%; fair, 56%; failure, 6% N/A
Choi et al. (14) Cervical pain (by traffic accident) 52 CA Not stated Herb-med, Oriental Phy-Tx (hot pack, TENS, SSP, Negative, US, traction, etc.), chuna, C?H pas (some cases) Classified into five groups (excellent, improved, mild improved and failure) by changes of symptoms and ROM Excellent, 17.31%; improved, 40.38%; mild improved, 32.69%; failure, 9.62% N/A
Lee et al. (17) HNP of C-spine 50 CA (0.25 ? 30 mm), depletion of blood 28 min daily various times Cervical traction, cervical collar, etc. Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by criteria of Martin A.N. Excellent, 70%; good, 20%; fair, 6%; poor, 4% N/A
Kim and Lee (13) Neck pain 72 32 CA (0.25 ? 40 mm) 15 min 1/2 days 6 times Chuna (various methods, 1/2 days, 6 times) Measure VAS, ROM Group treated by acupuncture with chuna was better than group treated by only acupuncture in the degree of improvement in pain and ROM P < 0.001
40 Same Same None

ROM, range of motion; Phy-Tx, physical therapy; TENS, transcutanous electrical nerve stimulation; EST, electrical stimulation therapy; HNP, herniated nucleus pulposus; SSP, silver spike point; LBP, Low back pain; IFC, interferencial current; FES, functional electrical stimulation.


[TableWrap ID: tbl4] Table 4 

Acupuncture for shoulder pain


Author name(s) Condition treated Number of points Type of acupuncture Length and number of Tx Other treatments Assessment Results of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Park and Lee (18) Frozen shoulder 43 CA (0.35 ? 40 mm), EA (2 Hz, continuous), direct moxibustion 20?30 min 3?5/ 1 week various times Herb-med Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by changes of symptoms and Apley scratch test Excellent, 16.3%; good, 34.8%; fair, 18.6%; failure, 30.2% N/A
Cho and Lee (19) Frozen shoulder 23 CA (0.25 ? 30 mm), indirect moxibustion, fire needle 20?30 min daily various times Herb-med, ICT, US, hot pack Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by changes of symptoms and DITI DITI was valuable in the evaluation of therapeutic effect of acupuncture Tx N/A

ICT, interferential current therapy.


[TableWrap ID: tbl5] Table 5 

Acupuncture for low back pain


Author name(s) Condition treated Number of points Type of acupuncture Length and number of Tx Other treatments Assessment Results of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Kim and Choi (20) HNP of L-spine 20 CA 15 min 1/2 days various times None Classified into five groups (excellent, good, moderate, slight and not improved) by clinical evaluation Excellent, 25%; good, 20%; moderate, 10%; slight, 20%; not improved, 25% N/A
Kim and Chae (36) LBP and sciatica 96 CA (0.25 ? 40 mm) 15 min 1/1?2 days various times Negative, carbon, infrared, ICT, hot pack, traction, etc. (some cases) Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by clinical evaluation Excellent, 26%; good, 35.4%; fair, 28.1%; poor, 10.4% N/A
Lee et al. (42) Stable thoracolumbar vertebral fracture 20 Acute stage Depletion of blood (A-shi points, daily), afterward CA Not stated Herb-med, ICT, US, hot pack, Knight taylor kin support, Bohler exercise Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by clinical evaluation Excellent, 30%; good, 60%; fair, 5%; poor, 5% N/A
Chronic stage CA, afterward indirect moxibustion (same site, 3 piece) 15 min various times
Lee (48) HNP of L-spine 26 CA 20 min daily for 4 weeks Herb-med Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by changes of symptoms and DITI Excellent, 23%; good, 73%; fair, 4%; poor, 0% N/A
Han (46) Degenerative lumbar stenosis 37 EA (0.3 ? 50 mm), HA (nutrient ducts 0.1?0.2 ml), indirect moxidustion (5 piece) 15?20 min 1/1?2 days various times Herb-med, negative (daily) Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by clinical evaluation Excellent, 13.5%; good, 56.8%; fair, 8.1%; poor, 21.6% N/A
Hur et al. (51) Spondylolisthesis 22 CA (0.25 ? 30 mm), indirect moxibustion (pain site), fire needle 20?30 min daily various times IFC, US, hot pack, etc. Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by changes of symptoms and DITI Excellent, 27.25%; good, 54.6%; fair, 13.65%; poor, 4.5% N/A
Kim et al. (47) Spondylolisthesis 28 CA (0.3 ? 40 mm), EA (14 Hz constant), moxibustion 15?20 min various times Herb-med, infrared, hot pack, ICT, US, cupping therapy, etc. Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by clinical evaluation Excellent, 10.7%; good, 60.7%; fair, 25%; poor, 3.6% N/A
Mun et al. (30) HNP of L-spine 16 CA, indirect moxibustion (3 piece/1 day) 30 min daily various times Herb-med, cupping therapy (5 min), Western medicine Measure herniation rate through f/u computed tomography after 5?7 years The largest herniations were those that had the greatest tendency to decrease in size N/A
Lim et al. (40) Acute back pain 34 CA 15?30 min 2/1 day various times Whuallak-tang (over 7 days), cupping therapy, exercise Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by clinical evaluation, measure AST, ALT, ALP Excellent, 29.4%; good, 67.7%; fair, 2.9%; poor, 0% N/A
Jin et al. (37) Scoliosis 12 CA Not stated Chuna (daily), Herb-med, ICT, US, etc. Measure correction rate through Cobb's angle (X-ray) Symptoms?, scoliosis angle?, rotation degree?,? correction rate? N/A
Jang et al. (21) HNP of L-spine 30 CA (0.3 ? 40 mm and 0.4 ? 80 mm) 15?20 min daily various times Herb-med, hot pack, ICT, EST, traction, cupping therapy, Chuna (cox), etc. Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by changes of symptoms and DITI Excellent, 20%; good, 43.3%; fair, 30%; poor, 6.66% N/A
Parkand Ahn (31) HNP of L-spine 44 22 CA (0.3 ? 40 mm), depletion of blood (A-shi points. 5?10 cc), EA (3.5?12 Hz, 9 V, 15 min) 15 min daily various times TENS, infrared, traction, hot pack Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by clinical evaluation EA group were more effective than CA group N/A
22 CA (0.3 ? 40 mm), depletion of blood (A-shi points. 5?10 cc) Same
Cho and Kim (50) HNP of L-spine 40 22 CA (0.3 ? 40 mm), EA (3.5?12 Hz at 9 V for 15 min) 25 min daily various times Herb-med, IFC, US, cupping therapy, hot or ice pack Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by changes of symptoms and DITI EA group were more effective than CA group N/A
18 CA (0.3 ? 40 mm) Same
Park and Lee (32) LBP and sciatica 21 12 Dong-si acupuncture Tx (0.3 ? 40 mm for 20?30 min), CA (0.3 ? 40 mm for 40?80 min), EA (2.3?3.6 Hz at 2?6 V) 15?25 min daily various times Herb-med, hot pack, cupping therapy, ICT, EST, traction, etc. Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by changes of symptoms and physical examination Dong-si acupuncture (+CA+EA) group were more effective than CA (+EA) group N/A
9 CA (0.3 ? 40 mm 40?80 mm), EA (2.3?3.6 Hz at 2?6V some cases) Same
Lee and Hwang (33) LBP and sciatica 28 14 Saam acupuncture Tx (0.3 ? 40 mm, for 20?30 min), CA (0.3 ? 40?80 mm), EA (2.3?3.6 Hz) 15?25 min daily (each) various times Hot pack, cupping therapy, ICT, EST, traction, Chuna, etc. Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by changes of symptoms and physical examination Saam acupuncture group (+CA+EA) were more effective than CA (+EA) group N/A
14 CA (0.3 ? 40?80 mm), EA (2.3?3.6 Hz) Same
Lee et al. (25) HNP of L-spine 60 27 CA (0.25 ? 30 mm) 15?20 min daily various times ICT, US, TENS, traction, hot or ice pack (some cases) Western medicine injection Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by clinical evaluation Group with Oriental- Western medicine were more effective than group with Oriental medicine N/A
33 Same Same
Yoon et al. (34) HNP of L-spine 30 15 CA (0.3 ? 40?80 mm some points and A-shi point), EA (2.3?3.5 Hz) 15?25 min daily (each) various times Hot pack, cupping therapy, ICT, EST, traction, chuna, etc. Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by changes of symptoms and physical examination A-shi point group (+CA+EA) were more effective than CA (+EA) group N/A
15 CA (0.3 ? 40?80 mm some points), EA (2.3?3.5 Hz) 15?25 min daily various times
Chae et al. (35) HNP of L-spine 29 17 CA 2/1 day (first 5 days) 1/1 day (after 5 days) for 10 days None Measure VAS Constitutional acupuncture group were more effective than CA group P < 0.05
12 Costitutional acupuncture 2/1 day (first 5 days) 1/1 day (after 5 days) for 10 days
Jeong et al. (52) LBP 40 28 Smokers, CA (0.25 ? 40 mm), EA 20?25 min daily various times Cupping therapy, Herb-med, hot pack, TENS, ICT, EST, FES Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by changes of symptoms and physical examination Smoking? ? effectiveness? N/S
12 Non-smokers: same Same
Song et al. (45) Thoracolumbar compression fracture 50 25 CA (0.3 ? 30 mm Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue acupuncture (45? oblique) and some points) 15?20 min daily various times Cupping therapy, Herb-med, hot pack, ICT, TENS, lumbar belt Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by changes of symptoms and physical examination Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue acupuncture group were more effective than CA group N/A
25 CA (0.3 ? 30 mm some points) Same
Kim et al. (28) LBP 33 17 MENS (0.25 ? 40 mm, B24?B27, 640 ?A, 3 Hz) 15 min 1/3 days 6 times Herb-med (4) Measure VAS, ROM, ODI MENS had an effect on relieving LBP VAS (P < 0.05); ROM, N/S; ODI, N/S
16 CA (0.25 ? 40 mm, B24?B27) Same
Heo (38) LBP 29 21 Discogenic: CA (not stated) Not stated Chuna (flexion-distraction technique, diversified technique), cupping therapy Measure improvement rate by VAS and LBP assessment questionnaire Both discogenic group and simple back pain group were improved by chuna Tx N/S; P < 0.05
8 Simple back: CA (not stated) Not stated

MENS, microcurrent electrical neuromuscular stimulation; ODI, Oswestry disability index; HA, herbal acupuncture; LBP, Low back pain; IFC, interferencial current; FES, functional electrical stimulation.


[TableWrap ID: tbl6] Table 6 

Acupuncture for knee joint pain


Author name(s) Condition treated Number of points Type of acupuncture Length and number of Tx Other treatments Assessment Results of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Koh and Kang (56) OA of knee joint 50 CA (0.25 ? 40 mm), moxibustion 15?20 min 1/1?2 days various times Herb-med Classified into three groups (excellent, good and no improvement) by clinical evaluation Excellent, 28.2%; good, 46.2%; no improvement, 25.6% N/A
Lee and Seong (55) OA of knee joint 40 CA (10?30 mm) and fire needle, indirect moxibustion 15 min daily various times Drugs for external application, Herb-med, exercise Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by Martin A.N. method Excellent, 70%; good, 15%; fair, 10%; poor, 5% N/A
Na and Ahn (57) OA of knee joint 47 CA (0.3 ? 30 mm), moxibustion Not stated Cupping therapy (A-shi points), Herb-med and hot pack, IFC, US, TDP Classified into four groups (excellent, good, slight good and poor) by assessment of Tx (American Rheumatism Association) Excellent, 12.8%; good, 48.9%; slight good, 27.7%; poor, 10.6% N/A
Woo et al. (58) Microtraumatic injuries of the knee joint 15 Dong-si acupuncture (0.3 ? 30 mm, 0.25 ? 15 mm) 15?30 min 3/1 week for 3 weeks Exercise (during acupuncture therapy) Measure through scale of Cincinnati knee rating system The mean number of before Tx was 60.6 and after was 66.5. A total of 66.6% of patients were improved N/A
Wang et al. (59) OA of knee joint 70 BV (4000:1, 0.1?0.2 ml/1 acupuncture point) 1?2/1 week various times None Classified into five groups (excellent, good, fair, poor and bad) by knee joint evaluation scale (Lysholm and Karlsson) BVT may play a role in the significant usefulness against OA patients P < 0.05
Kim and Lee (60) OA of knee joint 60 40 BV (5000:1) 2/1 week 15 times None Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by changes of symptoms and DITI BVT group were more effective than CA group P < 0.01
20 CA (0.25 ? 30 mm) 20 min daily various times
Hwang (62) RA 18 HA (0.1 cc/1 acupuncture point), moxibustion 1/2?3 days various times Cupping therapy (1/2?3 days) Classified into four groups (excellent, good, moderate, poor) by criteria of American Rheumatism Association Excellent, 6%; good, 6%; moderate, 3%; poor, 3 N/A
Hwang et al. (61) RA 15 BV (0.1?0.2 cc/1 acupuncture point) 2/1 week various times None Measure CRP, ESR, RA factor, improvement index and classified into four groups (excellent, good, moderate and poor) by clinical evaluation Excellent, 40%; good, 46.70%; moderate, 13.30%; poor, 0% N/A

BV, bee venom; BVT, bee venom therapy; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; CRP, C-reactive protein; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; OA, Osteoarthritis; TDP, Ten ding Diancibo Pu.


[TableWrap ID: tbl7] Table 7 

Acupuncture for other painful diseases


Author name(s) Condition treated Number of points Type of acupuncture Length and number of Tx Other treatments Assessment Results of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Choi and Lee (69) Acute gout 21 CA (0.2 ? 30 mm) 15 min daily various times None Classified into four groups (excellent, good, slight and unchanged) by clinical evaluation Excellent, 75%; good, 25%; slight, 0%; unchanged, 0% N/A
Bang et al. (67) Tennis elbow 36 CA (0.3 ? 50 mm), moxibustion (A-shi points, 3 piece/1 week) 15 min 1/1?3 days various times US, TENS, fixation (elastic band) Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by clinical evaluation Excellent, 14.1%; good, 52.8%; fair, 21%; poor, 10.5% N/A
Seung and Ahn (68) Arthritis 65 Direct moxibustion 1/2 days 3 times None The immune activities of cell (LTT, E-RFC) and immune activity of liguid (IgG, IgA, IgM, C5) were observed. The moxibustion showed good effect on the immune activity in the human body Various P-values
Multineuritis 22 Indirect moxibustion (with cutting slice of fresh ginger or garlic bulb) 2/1 week The immune activities of cell (3HTdR) were observed
Choi and Moon (65) Pain (various) 174 Depletion of blood (three-edged needle, vacuum extractor, A-shi points, totally 5?20 ml) Not stated Not stated Classified into four groups (excellent, good, unchanged and bad) by clinical evaluation Excellent, 20.12%; good, 61.49%; unchanged, 17.24%; bad, 1.15% N/A
Shim et al. (63) Pain 210 EA (0.2 ? 50 mm, 0.3 ? 65 mm, 12 REPP by using Neuro R-70, 3?10 Hz, 50?150 pp low frequency, etc.) 15?30 min 1?3/day 10 times Not stated Classified into four groups (marked improvement, improve, transient improvement, fail) by changes of investigation degree using Neuro R-70 Marked improvement, 43.3%; improve, 41.4%; transient improvement, 13.8%; fail, 1.5% N/A
Kim et al. (66) Ankle sprain 26 13 CA (0.3 ? 40 mm) 20?30 min various times Ice and hot pack, infrared Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by clinical evaluation Trigger point Tx group is more effective than CA group N/A
13 Trigger point Tx Various times
Cho et al. (64) Postthoracotomy pain 20 10 CA (0.25 ? 30 mm), intradermal needle (1/2 days) 20?30 min Analgesic requirements Measure scoring system for postoperative pain and the number of analgesic requirement The number of analgesic requirement was reduced in the acupuncture group P < 0.05
10 None None
Ahn et al. (70) Ankle sprain 21 11 CA (0.3 ? 30 mm in the painful side) 5 min None Measure the amperage from 12 left and right Chong points Between the control and the ankle sprain group, there were significant differences between the amperages. The acupuncture to acupuncture points in the painful side was not less effective than the acupuncture to acupuncture points N/A
CA (0.3 ? 30 mm in the normal side) 5 min
10 None None

REPP, reactive electro permeability point; EST, electrical stimulation therapy; HNP, herniated nucleus pulposus; SSP, silver spike point.


[TableWrap ID: tbl8] Table 8 

Acupuncture for stroke


Author name(s) Condition treated Number of points Type of acupuncture Length and number of Tx Other treatments Assessment Results of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Park et al. (73) Ischemic stroke 23 EA (intermittent) 15 min once None Measure BP, PR and CBF (by TCD) (before acupuncture, 5, 10 and 15 min after acupuncture) EA at GV26-CV24 was effective on increasing BP, PR and CBF P < 0.05
Ahn et al. (74) Stroke (hypertension) 22 AA For 24 h None Measure BP (every 1?2 h) AA was effective on decreasing BP P < 0.05
Moon et al. (76) Ischemic stroke 28 13 EA (0.25 ? 40 mm opposing needling 50 Hz intermittent) 15 min once None Measure Vm, Vs, PI (3 times) by TCD Opposing needling increased cerebral activity more than ipsilateral-needling (Vs) P < 0.05
15 EA (0.25 ? 40 mm ipsilateral-needling 50 Hz intermittent) Same
Kang et al. (75) Stroke (hypertension) 30 15 CA (0.25 ? 30 mm twirling 5?10 s) Not stated once None Check BP 13 times (5 min for 15 min, 15 min for 45 min, 30 min for 2 h) Acupuncture Tx at LI11, ST36 was useful to control temporary hypertension with acute stroke (especially systolic BP, from 5 to 150 min interval after acupuncture Tx) P < 0.05
15 CA (0.25 ? 30 mm sham acupuncture twirling 5?10 s) Same None
Lee et al. (72) Stroke 79 62 HTN G: venesection (Sypsun-points 1?2 cc) Once Check BP and BT twice before acupuncture Tx and 3 times after acupuncture Tx (every 30 min), undergo post hoc Scheffe index of GLM-repeated measured define factors Venesection at Sypsun-points decreased BP (case of severe degree) P < 0.05
17 Normal G: same Same
Ha et al. (71) Stroke 29 14 CA (0.3 ? 40 mm), scalp acupuncture (contralateral 10?15 min, twirling 1?3 min), moxibustion 15?20 min daily various times Herb-med, cupping therapy, EST, etc. (some cases) Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by clinical evaluation CA and scalp acupuncture group showed almost same effect compared with CA group N/S
15 CA (0.3 ? 40 mm), moxibustion Same

CBF, cerebral blood flow; TCD, transcranial doppler sonography; Vm, mean blood flow velocity; Vs, systolic blood flow velocity; PI, pulsatility index.


[TableWrap ID: tbl9] Table 9 

Acupuncture for poststroke diseases


Author name(s) Condition treated Number of points Type of acupuncture Length and number of Tx Other Treatments Assessment Result of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Song et al. (77) Poststroke hemiplegic shoulder joint, subluxation and pain 38 EA (0.25 ? 40 mm, 8 points: origin and insertion site of suprasupinatus, infraspinatus, deltoid m. 4 Hz intermittent), CA and moxibustion 15 min daily for 4 weeks Shoulder exercise (15 min, 3/1 day), physical therapy Measure ROM, VD and JD by X-ray, undergo muscle power evaluation (by AMA) EA was effective on treating shoulder joint, subluxation and pain after stroke ROM, P < 0.001; VD, P < 0.05; JD, P < 0.01
Lee and Lee (80) Shoulder hand synd. after stroke 23 11 EA (0.25 ? 40 mm at 5 Hz mixed) 20 min daily for 3 weeks None Measure DITI, ROM EA group were more improved on the temperature difference of both dorsal hands than CA group P < 0.01
12 CA (0.25 ? 40 mm) 20 min 20 min daily for 3 weeks
23 None None
Kang and Baik (79) Poststroke shoulder pain 120 90 30 CA Not stated Hot pack (20 min daily for 2 weeks), Herb-med Measure DITI and ROM ICT and TENS group were effective on treatment of poststroke shoulder pain P < 0.05
30 CA Not stated ICT (100 Hz constant. 15 min, daily for 2 weeks), Herb-med
30 CA Not stated TENS (250 Hz, 15 min daily for 2 weeks) Herb-med
30 CA Not stated (For 2 weeks)
Yin et al. (78) Poststroke hemiplegic shoulder pain 24 12 BVT (1:10 000, 0.2 cc/1 acupuncture point 3/week), CA Daily (CA) for 4 weeks Herb-med, exercise, FES Measure VAS, PROM, Fugel?Meyer motor assessment, modified Ashworth scale BVT group was effective than control group on VAS, PROM P < 0.05
15 CA Same
Kang et al. (81) Poststroke voiding dysfunction 20 10 Indirect moxibustion (5 piece), CA Daily Herb-med, physical therapy, etc Evaluate balanced bladder time and residual urine volume Moxibustion was effective on poststroke, voiding dysfunction N/S
10 CA Not stated

VD, vertical distance; JD, joint distance; AMA, American Medical Association; PROM, painless passive ROM of shoulder external rotation.


[TableWrap ID: tbl10] Table 10 

Acupuncture for facial palsy


Author name(s) Condition treated Number of points Type of acupuncture Length and number of Tx Other treatments Assessment Results of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Lee and Lee (82) Peripheral facial paralysis 72 CA (0.35 ? 30 mm), Dong-shi acupuncture, EA, fire needle 20 min various times Herb-med, SSP, carbon (20 min), EST (20 min at 3.5 Hz), infrared (20 min 3?4/1 day) Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by clinical evaluation Excellent, 55.56%; good, 19.44%; fair, 20.83%; poor, 4.16% N/A
Lee (85) Peripheral facial paralysis 85 CA (0.25 ? 30 mm), EA (1?3 Hz for 15 min) 15?20 min 1/2? 3 days various times Infrared, Western medicine (steroid) Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair-poor and trace-zero) by clinical evaluation Excellent, 31.76%; good, 32.94%; fair-poor, 23.53%; trace-zero, 11.77% N/A
Song et al. (87) Bell's palsy 11 CA (0.30 ? 30 mm) 15?20 min various times Infrared, TDP Examine DITI (took picture ?7 days after the o/s), classified into six groups (normal, good, fair, poor, trace and zero) by the grading system of facial palsy DITI is useful for prognostic diagnosis of Bell's palsy (temperature of abnormal site?? prognosis is good) N/S
Cho et al. (86) Bell's palsy 16 CA (0.25 ? 30 mm), fire needle 20?30 min various times Herb-med, infrared, Carbon, TENS, hot pack, etc Examine DITI (before and after Tx) and classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by clinical evaluation DITI shows therapeutic effect of acupuncture Tx N/A
Lee and Han (83) Peripheral facial paralysis 50 29 EA (0.25 ? 40 mm, loose and dense wave (till first week) 15?20 min 3 Hz various times Infrared, carbon (20 min), facial massage and exercise Classified into five groups (normal, excellent, good, fair and poor) by clinical evaluation EA had a better effect than CA N/A
21 CA (0.25 ? 40 mm) 15 min various times
Kang et al. (88) Peripheral facial paralysis 72 54 CA (0.25 ? 40 or 0.3 ? 50 mm), EA (frequency 3 ? 10 or 1 ? 10 constant 15 min) 20?30 min various times Infrared, hot pack, facial massage (some cases) Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by clinical evaluation Excellent, 31.5%; good, 37%; fair, 13%; poor, 18.5% N/A
18 Same Same Same and prednisolone (for 10 days) Excellent, 11.1%; good, 55.6%; fair, 33.3%; poor, 0%
Yun et al. (84) Bell's palsy 16 8 HA (Hominis placenta 0.1?0.2 cc for 3 days), CA (0.25 ? 30 mm) 15?20 min 1/1?2 days various times Herb-med, SSP, microwave or TDP, ICT Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by Muscle testing (Lucille Daniels) Excellent, 7; good, 1 Excellent, 4; good, 2; fair, 0; poor, 2 N/A
8 CA (0.25 ? 30 mm)
Kwon et al. (90) Peripheral facial paralysis 30 14 CA (0.30 ? 30?50 mm), joined puncture, EA (some cases. frequency 3 ? 10 or 1 ? 10, 15 min) 15?20 min 2?3/1 day various times Indirect moxibustion (1?2/1day), Herb-med, Western medicine infrared, hot pack, facial massage, etc Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by clinical evaluation Excellent, 21.4%; good, 50%; fair, 21.4%; poor, 7.2% N/A
16 Same Herb-med, Western medicine infrared, hot pack, facial massage, etc Excellent, 12.5%; good, 31.3%; fair, 31.3%; poor, 25%
Kim et al. (89) Peripheral facial paralysis 46 31 CA (0.25 ? 40 mm 0.3 ? 40 mm), EA (frequency 3 ? 10 or 1 ? 10), depletion of blood (some cases) 15?20 min 1/1?3 days average 16.6 times Herb-med, infrared, TDP, facial massage Classified into four groups (excellent, good, fair and poor) by clinical evaluation Excellent, 36%; good, 39%; fair, 19%; poor, 6% N/A
15 Same Same average 16.4 times Infrared, TDP, facial massage Excellent, 33%; good, 47%; fair, 13%; poor, 7%

[TableWrap ID: tbl11] Table 11 

Acupuncture for eye disease (opthalmopathy)


Author name(s) Condition treated Number of points Type of acupuncture Length and number of Tx Other treatments Assessment Results of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Sim et al. (91) Acute infectious conjunctivitis 22 Depletion of blood, afterward CA 15 min various times None Classified into four groups (recovered, good, unchanged and aggravated) by clinical evaluation Recovered, 20; good, 2 N/A
Chae (94) Visual acuity 74 CA Not stated average 2.25 times/week Herb-med Not stated Not stated N/A
Kim and Chae (92) Glaucoma 4(3)+ CA Not stated Herb-med Intraocular pressure, clinical evaluation Intraocular pressure?, 75%; improved, 75% P < 0.05
Cataract 5(0)+ Clinical evaluation and a eye sight test Improved, 40%; acuity?, 20% N/S
Causing-blindness-disease 23(16) =32 Clinical evaluation Improved, 57%; not changed, 30% P < 0.05
Choi et al. (93) Near sightedness 25 The stamp acupuncture, CA (0.25 ? 30 mm), AA, moxibustion (2/month) 20 min 3/week None Measure the improvement rate of eye sight in each cases of wearing glasses or not. Classified into four groups (good, fair, poor and fail) by the improvement degree of both eyes Points not wearing glasses were more improved than points wearing glasses Good, 44%; fair, 40%; poor, 12%; fail, 4% P < 0.05
Kim et al. (95) Amblyopia 18 The stamp acupuncture, CA (0.25 ? 30 mm), AA 20 min 3/week for 3 months Herb-med Measure the improvement rate of eye sight in each cases of wearing glasses or not and undergo an eye sight test (2/month 3 times) Acupuncture was effective in improvement of eye sight. Improvement degree 0.2?, 33%; 0.1?0.2, 50%; 0.1?, 17% P < 0.05

[TableWrap ID: tbl12] Table 12 

Acupuncture for nose disease (rhinopathy)


Author name(s) Condition treated Number of points Type of acupuncture Length and number of Tx Other treatments Assessment Results of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Kim and Park (96) Allergic rhinitis 30 CA, EA (2 Hz, intensity 2?3) 20 min 2?3/week average 22.8 times Herb-med Clinical evaluation Frequency of treatment? ? improvement? N/A
Kim and Yoon (98) Nasal obstruction 32 Nasal acupuncture (10 ? 140 mm) 15 min 2?3/week Infrared Classified into three grades by ant. rhinoscopy, afterward classified into four groups (excellent, good, unchange and worse) by evaluated grades Excellent, 31.3%; good, 53.1%; unchange, 9.4%; worse, 6.2% N/A
Seo and Lee (97) Empyema 19 Nasal acupuncture (0.375 ? 160 mm and oblique acupuncture into orifice of Sinus maxillaris) 15 min daily average 11 times Infrared Classified into three groups (excellent, good and unchanged) by clinical evaluation, rhiniscopy and X-ray Excellent, 4; good, 13; unchanged, 2 N/A

[TableWrap ID: tbl13] Table 13 

Acupuncture for ear disease (otopathy)


Author name(s) Condition treated Number of points Type of acupuncture Length and number of Tx Other treatments Assessment Results of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Park et al. (99) Tinnitus 30 CA 1/2?3 days Infra, cupping therapy, laser therapy, moxibustion, Herb-med Score (0?7) by questionnaire, measure success rate and recovery rate Success rate, 76.6%; recovery rate, 42.2% N/A
Kim (100) Tinnitus 47 CA Not stated Cupping therapy, moxibustion, Herb-med Classified into four groups (complete recovered, significant, good and unchanged) by changes of symptom Tinnitus included in other symptoms and accompanied by vertigo vertigo? treatment efficiency? N/A
Lee et al. (101) Otitis media with effusion 18 Depletion of blood, CA (0.20 ? 30 mm) 15 min (stimulation 2 times) average 14.5 times None Classified into three groups (excellent, good and unchanged) by clinical evaluation and otoscopy Excellence, 22.2%; good, 66.7%; unchanged, 11.1% N/A

[TableWrap ID: tbl14] Table 14 

Acupuncture for skin disease (dermatopathy)


Author name(s) Condition treated Number of points Type of acupuncture Length and number of Tx Other treatments Assessment Results of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Chae (102) Acne (Comedo) 125 (117) CA 20 min 2?3/1 week average 5.44 times Herb-med, drugs for external application Score (1?20) by Consensus conference on acne classification Not stated N/A
Kim and Kim (103) Acne (Comedo) 8 (4) Methods of reinforcement and reduction, AA Not stated 2/week (AA) Drugs for external application (medicinal powder for Comedo), Herb-med Clinical evaluation None N/A

[TableWrap ID: tbl15] Table 15 

Acupuncture for hypertension


Author name(s) Condition treated Number of points Type of acupuncture Length and number of Tx Other treatments Assessment Result of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Byun and Ahn (104) Hypertension 23 AA 2/1 week None Classified into five groups by average BP (Tokyo University) AA was effective on treating hypertension N/A
Lee et al. (105) Hypertension 25 Indirect moxibustion (3 piece) 2/1 week 10 times None Measure BP 6 times (1/1 week) Constant moxibustion at LI11, CV4 showed decrease of BP P < 0.05

[TableWrap ID: tbl16] Table 16 

Acupuncture for smoking and drinking cessation


Author name(s) Number of points Type of acupuncture and acupuncture points Length and number of Tx Other treatments Assessment Result of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Lee et al. (110) 606 CA (0.25 ? 40 mm) afterward, AA (same points) 15?20 min 2/week various times None Classified into five groups (recovered, good, moderate, slight and unchanged) by clinical evaluation Recovered, 40.5%; good, 26.7%; moderate, 19.5%; slight, 5.3%; unchanged, 8.1% N/A
Ahn et al. (107) 107 AA 2/week average 4.07 times None f/u 1 year after Tx, classified into five groups (recovered, good, moderate, slight and unchanged) by clinical evaluation Recovered, 22.4%; good, 5.6%; moderate, 19.6%; slight, 16.8%; unchanged, 35.5% N/A
Hwang et al. (106) 203 CA (0.3 ? 30 mm) afterward, AA (same points) 20 min 2/week various times None Classified into five groups (recovered, good, moderate, slight and unchanged) by clinical evaluation Recovered, 24%; good, 32%; moderate, 27%; slight, 5%; unchanged, 12% N/A
Choi (109) 37 AA, CA (contralateral side) 15 min 2/week average 2.95 times None Classified into five groups (recovered, good, moderate, slight and unchanged) by clinical evaluation Recovered, 43.2%; good, 24.3%; moderate, 16.2%; slight, 13.5%; unchanged, 2.7% N/A
Choi and Hwang (108) 439 249 AA 2/week for 3 weeks None Classified into five groups by clinical evaluation and compare Between exercise/control no significant difference, but AA: effective N/A
190 Sham AA 2/week for 3 weeks
Kim et al. (111) 233 CA (0.25 ? 40 mm), AA (same points, contralateral side) 15?20 min 1/3?4 days various times None Classified into five groups (recovered, good, moderate, slight and unchanged) by quit-drinking duration The success rate, 74.7%; the recovered rate, 43.8% N/A
Park and Peun (113) 50 CA, afterward AA (both sides, same points) 20 min 2/week average 7.36 times Herb-med None None N/A
Lee et al. (112) 133 CA, AA (same points, contralateral side) 15?20 min 2/week for 5 days Herb-med Classified into three groups (good, fair and no response) by clinical evaluation Good, 52.7%; fair, 14.5%; no response, 32.8% N/A

[TableWrap ID: tbl17] Table 17 

Acupuncture for obesity


Author name(s) Number of points Type of acupuncture and acupuncture points Length and number of Tx Other treatments Assessment Result of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Lee and Lee (114) 72 EA (left and right eight acupuncture points located on the abdomen, horizontal method, 200?250 Hz) 40 min average 8.60 times None Classified into four groups (good, moderate, slight and unchanged) by changes of weight and circumference of abdomen Good, 25%; moderate, 31.9%; slight, 31.9%; unchanged, 11.2% N/A
Jeong et al. (115) 9 CA (various), EA (not stated), AA (various) Not stated average (EA) 12.9 times Various (diet, exercise, etc.) Measure weight, fat mass, percent body fat, fat distribution, relative body weight, BMI Weight (kg), 5.66?; fat mass (kg), 3.28?; percent body fat (%), 2.83?; fat distribution, 0.05?; relative body weight (%), 10.4?; BMI, 2.2?; circumference of abdomen, 2.25? N/A
Lee and Kim (116) 16 8 CA, AA 15 min daily For 7 weeks (3 weeks, first period; 1 week, rest; 3 weeks, second period) Measure weight, percent body fat, compare exercise group. with control group and first period with second period AA?CA group was more effective than AA?Herb-med group N/A
8 AA, afterward stick Sinapis semen 15 min 1/3 days

BMI, body mass index.


[TableWrap ID: tbl18] Table 18 

Acupuncture for nausea and vomiting


Author name(s) Condition treated Number of points Type of acupuncture (exercise group) Length and number of Tx (exercise group) Other treatments Assessment Results of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Type of acupuncture (control group) Length and number of Tx (control group)
Kim et al. (118) Postoperative nausea and vomiting 100 50 EA (0.25 ? 40 mm PC6 PC7 twirling 3 Hz intensity till not feeling pain) 15 min Various Tx for op. Check incidence of nausea, retching and vomiting blindly every 3 h after op. for 12 h EA group showed better results for 12 h after op. (every 3 h) P < 0.001
50 None None
Kim et al. (117) Postoperative nausea and vomiting 100 50 AA Not stated Various Tx for op. Check incidence of nausea, retching and vomiting blindly every 3 h after op. for 12 h AA group showed better results for 12 h after op. (every 3 h) P < 0.01
50 None None

Op., operation.


[TableWrap ID: tbl19] Table 19 

Acupuncture for obsterics and gynecology


Author name(s) Condition treated Number of points Type of acupuncture number and acupuncture points Length and number of Tx Other treatments Assessment Result of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Kim and Kim (120) Acupuncture anesthesia (curettage) 31 EA (0.25 ? 40 mm 1?3.5 Hz adjust intensity) During curettage None Classified into three groups (excellent, good and poor) by injection amount of pentothal sodium Excellent, 22; good, 5; poor, 4 N/A
Kim et al. (119) Labor in primipara 39 12 EA (1?3 Hz constant, adjust intensity) From active phase (first stage of labor) to phase of placental separation (third stage of labor) once None The duration of labor of exercise group was shorter than that of control group The duration of labor of exercise group was shorter than that of control group P < 0.05
27 None None

[TableWrap ID: tbl20] Table 20 

Acupuncture for other conditions


Author name(s) Condition treated Number of points Type of acupuncture and acupuncture points Length and number of Tx Other treatments Assessment Result of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Hwang and Yang (121) Peripheral blood circulation disturbance 20 Indirect moxibustion (three piece) Once None Measure peripheral blood circulation using assessing 22 grades The indirect moxibustion (10-jong points) were useful for peripheral blood circulation N/A
Ahn et al. (122) Impotence 12 Saam acupuncture Not stated 1/week for 2 months Herb-med Measure the temperature using DITI The thermo-difference of left thigh and glans penis, both scrota increased significantly P < 0.05
You et al. (123) The change of hormone and energy metabolism during weight control of Taekwondo players 20 10 AA 1/3 days for 2 weeks Low calorie diet, sauna and regular exercise, etc. Analysis the level of Na+, K+, Cl?, Ca++, creatinine, cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine AA was shown increase levels of Na+, cortisol, epinephrine, decrease levels of leptin that products of ob-gene P < 0.05 (Na+, cortisol, epinephrine)
10 None None P < 0.01 (leptin)

[TableWrap ID: tbl21] Table 21 

Acupuncture for human study


Author name(s) Number of points Type of acupuncture and acupuncture points Length and number of Tx Assessment points Measure moments Result of acupuncture therapy Statistical analysis
Lee et al. (129) 15 CA (0.25 ? 40 mm right LI4 twirling 7?8 times) 30 min LI4 LI11 Before acupuncture stimulation, 30 s, 1 min, 10 min, 30 min after acupuncture stimulation and 10 min after needle- removal DITI is a useful method to observe and f/u the effects and the changes by acupuncture stimulation for objective evaluation N/A
Han et al. (131) 54 CA (0.3 ? 30 mm left LI4) 15 min LI20 Before acupuncture stimulation, 5, 10 and 15 min after acupuncture stimulation Acupuncture can modulate the equilibrium of Um-Yang and Keo-ja theory Various P-values
Sohn et al. (130) 95 73 CA (0.25 ? 30 mm both or right LI4) 10 min LI4 ST25 Before acupuncture stimulation, and 1, 10 min after acupuncture stimulation Acupuncture on LI4 affects to thermal changes of LI4 and ST25 Various P-values
22 None None
Song et al. (132) 42 27 CA (0.25 ? 30 mm right LI4) 10 min LI11 LI20 Before acupuncture stimulation, and 1, 10 min after acupuncture stimulation Acupuncture on LI4 affects to thermal changes of LI11 and LI20 Various P-value
15 None None
Song et al. (137) 60 20 CA (0.3 ? 30 mm left LI4 left) 10 min LI1-5 Before acupuncture stimulation, and 10 min after acupuncture stimulation One point with the left or right rotary acupuncture stress effects the other points which have relation with it Various P-values
20 CA (0.3 ? 30 mm left LI4 right) 10 min
20 None None
Hwang et al. (134) 100 35 CA (0.3 ? 30 mm left LI4) 10 min LI4 ST25 CV12 Before acupuncture stimulation, and 5, 10 min after acupuncture stimulation Acupuncture on LI4 affects to thermal changes of ST25 and CV12 (abdominal surface) Various P-values
35 CA (0.3 ? 30 mm both LI4) 10 min
30 None None
Yun et al. (135) 30 10 None None GV25 and left LI20 right S4 and right LI20 left S4 Before acupuncture stimulation, and 3, 10, 15, 25 and 45 min after acupuncture stimulation The skin temperature of EA group were more increase than the control group. The temperature of H5,7 group were more increase than the LI3, 4 group Various P-values
10 EA (0.3 ? 30 mm right LI4 LI3 2 Hz Hi-CONT.) 15 min
10 EA (0.3 ? 30 mm right H7 H5 2 Hz Hi-CONT.) 15 min
Kim et al. (139) 60 30 CA (0.3 ? 30 mm L9) 10 min LU9 PT7 LU1 CV22 Before acupuncture stimulation, and 10 min after acupuncture stimulation The acupuncture stimulation on L9 affected the thermal change of the area that is a meridian point, in lung meridian Various P-values
30 None None
Yook et al. (140) 23 23 N/S (0.05 cc/1 acupuncture point) None BL12 BL13 BL41 BL42 Before HA, and 1, 24, 48 h, 7 days after HA HA fluid has different effects on the dermatothermal change following times. BU group is latest in duration of physical reaction Various P-values
22 HA (Carthami semen 0.05 cc/1 acupuncture point) None
23 HA (Fel Ursi + Bezoar Bovis. 0.05 cc/1 acupuncture point) None
Song and Yook (138) 60 30 CA (0.3 ? 30 mm left L9) 10 min LU8-LU11, LU5 (five shu points) Before acupuncture stimulation, and 10 min after acupuncture stimulation The acupuncture on L9 affected the thermal change of the area that was the five shu points in the lung meridian Various P-values
30 None None
Kim et al. (141) 45 25 Dong-shi acupuncture (0.3 ? 40 mm Wu-Hu) 10 min BL60 BL62 GB40 ST41 Before acupuncture stimulation, and 10 min after acupuncture stimulation The acupuncture on the Wu-Hu was effective at the ankle region Various P-values
20 None None
Park (124) 15 CA (0.25 ? 40 mm Lt. P8) 12 min Measure the electrical resistance of anesthetized left P6, anesthetized non-acupuncture point, normal left P4 and normal right P6 When the acupuncture stimulation is applied to human body, the decrease of electrical resistance is not only to sweat secretion but also to other internal resistance P < 0.01 (dry electrode) P < 0.05 (wet electrode)
Youn et al. (125) 5 CA (KI6) (Twist for 70 s and rest for 70 s) ? 3 Examine BOLD response by fMRI Acupuncture at KI6 resulted in negative BOLD response to stimulation Not stated
Kim et al. (126) 11 5 EA (0.3 ? 40 mm ST36 2 Hz constant) 20 min Measure rCBF by rest/EA Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT using a same-dose subtraction method EA at ST36 increased rCBF in the contralateral cerebral hemisphere P < 0.9
6 Sham acupuncture 20 min
Oh et al. (127) 11 5 CA (0.3 ? 40 mm left LI4) 15 min Measure rCBF by rest/EA Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT using a same-dose subtraction method Acupuncture at left LI4 increased rCBF in the right hemisphere (the right parietal lobe, a part of the right middle posttemporal gyrus and the right inferior occipital lobe) P < 0.9
6 Sham acupuncture 15 min
Woo and Nam (128) 20 10 CA (right LI4 LR3) 20 min Measure changes in blind spot mapping (manual perimetry) Acupuncture ipsilateral side ? blind spot map?, contralateral cortical activity? Acupuncture contralateral side ? blind spot map?, contralateral cortical activity? N/A
10 CA (left LI4 LR3) 20 min

BOLD, blood oxygen level dependent; rCBF, regional cerebral blood flow; SPECT, single photon emission computed tomography; BU, Calculus Bovis.Fel Ursi; ECD, ethyl cysteinate dimer.



Article Categories:
  • Reviews

Keywords: acupuncture, clinical study, Korean acupuncture.

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