Document Detail

The placenta. Not just a conduit for maternal fuels.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  1748265     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The placenta is a specialized organ of exchange that provides nutrients to and excretes waste products from the fetus. The exchange of nutrients between placenta and fetus involves three major mechanisms: 1) direct transfer of nutrients from the maternal to the fetal plasma, 2) placental consumption of nutrients, and 3) placental conversion of nutrients to alternate substrate forms. Although direct transfer has been considered the primary means by which placental-fetal exchange controls the supply of nutrients to the fetus and thereby fetal metabolism and growth, the considerable metabolic activity of the placenta provides a large and fundamentally important contribution to both the quality and quantity of nutrient substrates supplied to the fetus; e.g., placental O2 and glucose consumption rates approach or even exceed those of brain and tumor tissue. Other placental metabolic activities include glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, oxidation, protein synthesis, amino acid interconversion, triglyceride synthesis, and chain lengthening or shortening of individual fatty acids. Thus, consideration of the metabolism of the placenta is essential for a more complete understanding of how the placenta regulates nutrient transfer to the fetus, fetal energy balance, and fetal growth.
W W Hay
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Diabetes     Volume:  40 Suppl 2     ISSN:  0012-1797     ISO Abbreviation:  Diabetes     Publication Date:  1991 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1992-01-23     Completed Date:  1992-01-23     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0372763     Medline TA:  Diabetes     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  44-50     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Division of Perinatal Medicine and Research, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver 80262.
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MeSH Terms
Amino Acids / metabolism
Blood Glucose / metabolism
Fetus / physiology
Glucose / metabolism
Maternal-Fetal Exchange*
Models, Biological
Oxygen Consumption
Placenta / physiology*
Uterus / physiology
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Amino Acids; 0/Blood Glucose; 50-99-7/Glucose

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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