Document Detail

An overview of oral contraceptives: mechanism of action and clinical use.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16567739     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Hormonal contraception is available in oral contraceptive pills and in newer formulations, including the transdermal patch, the vaginal ring, subcutaneous implants, and IM injections. Prevention of pregnancy is achieved by inhibiting ovulation, fertilization, and/or implantation of an egg. Hormonal contraception provides effective, tolerable, and reversible prevention of pregnancy. Efficacy and safety profiles are similar for different formulations and administration routes. Lowest expected failure (i.e., method failure) rates for hormonal contraceptives, regardless of formulation, are <2%. Typical failure rates for oral formulations range from <3% to 5% due to failures in compliance. The most commonly reported adverse effects are weight gain, nausea, variations in menstrual flow, breast changes such as tenderness, discomfort, or swelling, depression or mood disturbances, decreased sexual desire or response, and acne. Rare but serious potential effects include cardiovascular diseases, such as stroke, and an increased risk for breast cancer, liver tumors, and gallbladder disease. Hormonal contraceptive use should be avoided in women at risk for blood clots, by heavy smokers, and in women with breast or other cancers. Use of hormonal contraception in adolescents requires special consideration, in part because of decreased compliance.
Cheryl A Frye
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Neurology     Volume:  66     ISSN:  1526-632X     ISO Abbreviation:  Neurology     Publication Date:  2006 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-03-28     Completed Date:  2006-04-17     Revised Date:  2007-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0401060     Medline TA:  Neurology     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  S29-36     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Center for Neuroscience Research, State University of New York, Albany, New York 12203, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Contraceptive Agents, Female / administration & dosage*,  adverse effects*
Contraceptives, Oral / administration & dosage*,  adverse effects*
Contraceptives, Oral, Combined*
Drug Administration Schedule
Meta-Analysis as Topic
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Contraceptive Agents, Female; 0/Contraceptives, Oral; 0/Contraceptives, Oral, Combined

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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