Document Detail

An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with treated waste water used for irrigation.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17219868     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is endemic in developing countries and remains a public health problem elsewhere. This study was conducted to investigate an outbreak of HAV infection, which occurred during a period of almost 5 months (January-May 1996) in the National Guard Iskan (Housing Authority) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Ninety four cases were found to be positive for IgM antibody to HAV. A case control study was done to identify possible risk factors. For every case, 3 controls have been selected from the same household matched for age and sex. Information about reported cases was obtained by attending physicians through an interview questionnaire from adult cases and parents of young cases and controls (<12 y). It included questions regarding symptoms, demographics and possible source of the infection. Results showed that the attack rate of the whole population was 1.03 %, while that for children <10 years was twofold higher (2.05 %) than the total population. The risk of acquiring infection among them was found to be five times that among those aged 40 years and higher (R.R=5.32). There was a lack of association between developing hepatitis A and any of the food items or milk used in the studied area during the time of the outbreak. On the other hand exposure to irrigation water among cases was found to be significantly higher than among controls especially among children below 10 years (O.R=2.26). Analysis of the available data suggests a strong association between illness and exposure to waste water used for irrigation of gardens through playing with it, or through occasional drinking especially among children below 10 years. The prolonged course of the outbreak (5 months) may be attributed to subsequent person to person transmission from index cases to intimate contacts especially among the same household.
E Barrimah; K A Salem; M S Gabal
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association     Volume:  74     ISSN:  0013-2446     ISO Abbreviation:  J Egypt Public Health Assoc     Publication Date:  1999  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-01-15     Completed Date:  2007-02-16     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7505602     Medline TA:  J Egypt Public Health Assoc     Country:  Egypt    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  227-39     Citation Subset:  IM    
Dept. of Community Medicine, Suez Canal University.
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MeSH Terms
Age Distribution
Case-Control Studies
Developing Countries
Disease Outbreaks / statistics & numerical data*
Endemic Diseases / statistics & numerical data
Environmental Exposure / adverse effects,  statistics & numerical data
Hepatitis A / blood,  epidemiology,  etiology*,  prevention & control,  transmission*
Hepatitis A Antibodies / blood
Immunoenzyme Techniques
Immunoglobulin M / blood
Military Personnel / statistics & numerical data
Population Surveillance
Risk Factors
Saudi Arabia
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Waste Disposal, Fluid* / methods
Water Purification
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Hepatitis A Antibodies; 0/Immunoglobulin M

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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