Document Detail

The origins and genetic distinctiveness of the Chamorros of the Marianas Islands: an mtDNA perspective.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23180676     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Archaeological and linguistic evidence suggests the Marianas Islands were settled around 3,600 years before present (ybp) from Island Southeast Asia (ISEA). Around 1,000 ybp latte stone pillars and the first evidence of rice cultivation appear in the Marianas. Both traditions are absent in the rest of prehistoric Oceania.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the genetic origins and postsettlement gene flow of Chamorros of the Marianas Islands.
METHODS: To infer the origins of the Chamorros we analyzed ∼360 base pairs of the hypervariable-region 1 (HVS1) of mitochondrial DNA from 105 Chamorros from Guam, Rota, and Saipan, and the complete mitochondrial genome of 32 Guamanian Chamorros, and compared them to lineages from ISEA and neighboring Pacific archipelagoes from the database.
RESULTS: Results reveal that 92% of Chamorros belong to haplogroup E, also found in ISEA but rare in Oceania. The two most numerous E lineages were identical to lineages currently found in Indonesia, while the remaining E lineages differed by only one or two mutations and all were unique to the Marianas. Seven percent of the lineages belonged to a single Chamorro-specific lineage within haplogroup B4, common to ISEA as well as Micronesia and Polynesia.
CONCLUSIONS: These patterns suggest a small founding population had reached and settled the Marianas from ISEA by 4,000 ybp, and developed unique mutations in isolation. A second migration from ISEA may have arrived around 1,000 ybp, introducing the latte pillars, rice agriculture and the homogeneous minority B4 lineage.
Miguel G Vilar; Chim W Chan; Dana R Santos; Daniel Lynch; Rita Spathis; Ralph M Garruto; J Koji Lum
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2012-11-24
Journal Detail:
Title:  American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council     Volume:  25     ISSN:  1520-6300     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Hum. Biol.     Publication Date:    2013 Jan-Feb
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-12-20     Completed Date:  2013-06-12     Revised Date:  2013-07-31    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8915029     Medline TA:  Am J Hum Biol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  116-22     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 19104, USA.
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MeSH Terms
DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics*
Emigration and Immigration
Gene Flow*
Molecular Sequence Data
Oceanic Ancestry Group / genetics*
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/DNA, Mitochondrial

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