Document Detail

The oral bioavailability of nitrate from nitrate-rich vegetables in humans.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18723086     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
High dietary nitrate intake may pose a risk to human health. Since up to 80-85% of dietary nitrate intake comes from vegetables, the aim of this study was to determine the absolute bioavailability of nitrate from three nitrate-rich vegetables. In an open, four-way cross-over, single dose study, 12 human subjects underwent the following treatments: (1) intravenous infusion of 500mg sodium nitrate, (2) oral administration of 300g cooked spinach, (3) oral administration of 300g raw lettuce, and (4) oral administration of 300g cooked beetroot. The wash-out period between treatments was at least 6 days. Plasma samples were analysed to assess the nitrate and nitrite concentrations, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The bioavailability of nitrate was 98+/-12% from cooked spinach, 114+/-14% from raw lettuce and 106+/-15% from cooked beetroot. There was no significant increase in plasma nitrite concentrations. This study shows that nitrate from vegetables, whether cooked or uncooked, is absorbed very effectively, resulting in an absolute nitrate bioavailability of around 100%. Thus, reducing the amount of nitrate in vegetables can be an effective measure to lower the systemic nitrate exposure of the general population. However, other aspects, such as the costs to produce vegetables with a low nitrate content and the possible beneficial effects of nitrate in vegetables, need to be considered when evaluating the usefulness of such a measure.
Agnes G van Velzen; Adrienne J A M Sips; Ronald C Schothorst; Annette C Lambers; Jan Meulenbelt
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2008-08-03
Journal Detail:
Title:  Toxicology letters     Volume:  181     ISSN:  0378-4274     ISO Abbreviation:  Toxicol. Lett.     Publication Date:  2008 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-09-23     Completed Date:  2008-12-29     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7709027     Medline TA:  Toxicol Lett     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  177-81     Citation Subset:  IM    
National Poisons Information Centre, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
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MeSH Terms
Administration, Oral
Beta vulgaris / chemistry
Biological Availability
Cross-Over Studies
Food Contamination / analysis
Infusions, Intravenous
Lettuce / chemistry,  standards
Nitrates / administration & dosage,  blood,  pharmacokinetics*
Nitrites / administration & dosage,  blood,  pharmacokinetics
Spinacia oleracea / chemistry,  standards
Vegetables* / chemistry,  standards
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Nitrates; 0/Nitrites

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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