Document Detail

The ophthalmic implications of the correction of late enophthalmos following severe midfacial trauma.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  1808816     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Severe midfacial trauma presents several challenges to the reconstructive surgeon. Acute rigid fixation of the facial skeleton accompanied by bone grafting to restore the confines and volume of the orbit provide the best opportunity for acceptable aesthetic results. The severity of the trauma causes the late postoperative complication of enophthalmos. Injury to orbital structures with subsequent cicatricial change results in significant alteration in extraocular motility with resultant diplopia. There are no reports in the literature which critically evaluate the effect of late enophthalmos correction on extraocular motility, diplopia, and vision in patients who have suffered Le Fort or NOE fractures. A retrospective study is presented which reviews the results of late surgery for the correction of enophthalmos in 40 patients, all of whom had severe "impure" orbital fractures. This study addresses the following questions: (1) Can the globe effectively be repositioned?, (2) Is there a change in subjective diplopia?, (3) Does a change in extraocular motility occur, and if it does, is it predictable?, (4) Is there a risk to visual acuity? and finally, (5) Do the answers to questions 1 through 4 suggest that late surgical intervention for the correction of enophthalmos should be recommended for this patient population? During a 9-year period, 44 patients with severe diplopia trauma received surgery for enophthalmos correction. A review of 40 patients on whom 56 operations were performed is presented. Thirty-eight patients had enophthalmos and 35 had inferior displacement of the globe. Medial displacement of the globe occurred in 11 patients. Twenty-nine patients had diplopia. Six patients had vision too poor on the injured side to have diplopia. Enophthalmos was improved in 32 patients. Dystopia of the globe was improved in 31 cases. However, neither enophthalmos nor dystopia of the globe could be improved with every operation. Only 35 of the 48 operations for enophthalmos for which measurements were available produced an improvement; in 1 case the enophthalmos was thought to be worse postoperatively. Dystopia operations resulted in improvement in 40 of 48 operations; in 2 instances dystopia was worse postoperatively. Diplopia was unchanged by 33 operations, improved by 11 procedures, and worsened by 6. If patients are considered before and after their total reconstruction course, diplopia was improved in 9 of the 29 patients. In seven of these nine, diplopia was eliminated. There was no change in or production of diplopia in 19 patients, and 5 patients had worsening of their double vision.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
N T Iliff
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society     Volume:  89     ISSN:  0065-9533     ISO Abbreviation:  Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc     Publication Date:  1991  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1992-05-20     Completed Date:  1992-05-20     Revised Date:  2009-11-18    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7506106     Medline TA:  Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  477-548     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Diplopia / surgery
Enophthalmos / etiology,  radiography,  surgery*
Facial Injuries / complications,  radiography,  surgery*
Middle Aged
Orbital Fractures / complications,  radiography,  surgery
Postoperative Complications
Retrospective Studies
Skull Fractures / complications,  radiography,  surgery
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Treatment Outcome

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