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An open-loop controlled active lung simulator for preterm infants.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20926328     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Process    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
We describe the underlying theory, design and experimental evaluation of an electromechanical analogue infant lung to simulate spontaneous breathing patterns of preterm infants. The aim of this work is to test the possibility to obtain breathing patterns of preterm infants by taking into consideration the air compressibility. Respiratory volume function represents the actuation pattern, and pulmonary pressure and flow-rate waveforms are mathematically obtained through the application of the perfect gas and adiabatic laws. The mathematical model reduces the simulation interval into a step shorter than 1 ms, allowing to consider an entire respiratory act as composed of a large number of almost instantaneous adiabatic transformations. The device consists of a spherical chamber where the air is compressed by four cylinder-pistons, moved by stepper motors, and flows through a fluid-dynamic resistance, which also works as flow-rate sensor. Specifically designed software generates the actuators motion, based on the desired ventilation parameters, without controlling the gas pneumatic parameters with a closed-loop. The system is able to simulate tidal volumes from 3 to 8 ml, breathing frequencies from 60 to 120 bpm and functional residual capacities from 25 to 80 ml. The simulated waveforms appear very close to the measured ones. Percentage differences on the tidal volume waveform vary from 7% for the tidal volume of 3 ml, down to 2.2-3.5% for tidal volumes in the range of 4-7 ml, and 1.3% for the tidal volume equal to 8 ml in the whole breathing frequency and functional residual capacity ranges. The open-loop electromechanical simulator shows that gas compressibility can be theoretically assessed in the typical pneumatic variable range of preterm infant respiratory mechanics.
Authors:
Stefano Cecchini; Emiliano Schena; Sergio Silvestri
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Medical engineering & physics     Volume:  33     ISSN:  1873-4030     ISO Abbreviation:  Med Eng Phys     Publication Date:  2011 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-01-10     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9422753     Medline TA:  Med Eng Phys     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  47-55     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Rome, Italy.
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