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A novel approach for determining total titanium from titanium dioxide nanoparticles suspended in water and biosolids by digestion with ammonium persulfate.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22200312     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Titanium dioxide (i.e. TiO(2)) in nano-form is a constituent of many nanomaterials that are used in sunscreens, cosmetics, industrial products and in biomedical applications. Quantification of TiO(2) nanoparticles in various matrixes is a topic of great interest for researchers studying the potential health and environmental impacts of nanoparticles. However, analysis of TiO(2) as Ti(4+) is difficult because current digestion techniques require use of strong acids that may be a health and safety risk in the laboratory. To overcome this problem, we developed a new method to digest TiO(2) nanoparticles using ammonium persulfate as a fusing reagent. The digestion technique requires short times to completion and optimally requires only 1g of fusing reagent. The fusion method showed >95% recovery of Ti(4+) from 6μgmL(-1) aqueous suspensions prepared from 10μgmL(-1) suspension of different forms of TiO(2,) including anatase, rutile and mixed nanosized crystals, and amorphous particles. These recoveries were greater than open hot-plate digestion with a tri-acid solution and comparable to microwave digestion with a tri-acid solution. Cations and anions commonly found in natural waters showed no significant interferences when added to samples in amounts of 10ng to 110mg, which is a much broader range of these ions than expected in environmental samples. Using ICP-MS for analysis, the method detection limit (MDL) was determined to be 0.06ngmL(-1), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.20ngmL(-1). Analysis of samples of untreated and treated wastewater and biosolids collected from wastewater treatment plants yielded concentrations of TiO(2) of 1.8 and 1.6ngmL(-1) for the wastewater samples, respectively, and 317.4ngmg(-1) dry weights for the biosolids. The reactions between persulfate ions and TiO(2) were evaluated using stoichiometric methods and FTIR and XRD analysis. A formula for the fusing reaction is proposed that involves the formation of sulfate radicals.
Authors:
Kambiz Khosravi; M Ehsanul Hoque; Brian Dimock; Holger Hintelmann; Chris D Metcalfe
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2011-12-01
Journal Detail:
Title:  Analytica chimica acta     Volume:  713     ISSN:  1873-4324     ISO Abbreviation:  Anal. Chim. Acta     Publication Date:  2012 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-12-27     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0370534     Medline TA:  Anal Chim Acta     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  86-91     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Water Quality Centre, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, K9J 7B8, Canada.
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