Document Detail

The new paradigm: retinal pigment epithelium cells generated from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20846177     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Compared with neural crest-derived melanocytes, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in the back of the eye are pigment cells of a different kind. They are a part of the brain, form an epithelial monolayer, respond to distinct extracellular signals, and provide functions that far exceed those of a light-absorbing screen. For instance, they control nutrient and metabolite flow to and from the retina, replenish 11-cis-retinal by re-isomerizing all-trans-retinal generated during photoconversion, phagocytose daily a portion of the photoreceptors' outer segments, and secrete cytokines that locally control the innate and adaptive immune systems. Not surprisingly, RPE cell damage is a major cause of human blindness worldwide, with age-related macular degeneration a prevalent example. RPE replacement therapies using RPE cells generated from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells provide a novel approach to a rational treatment of such forms of blindness. In fact, RPE-like cells can be obtained relatively easily when stem cells are subjected to a two-step induction protocol, a first step that leads to a neuroectodermal fate and a second to RPE differentiation. Here, we discuss the characteristics of such cells, propose criteria they should fulfill in order to be considered authentic RPE cells, and point out the challenges one faces when using such cells in attempts to restore vision.
Kapil Bharti; Sheldon S Miller; Heinz Arnheiter
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural     Date:  2010-10-07
Journal Detail:
Title:  Pigment cell & melanoma research     Volume:  24     ISSN:  1755-148X     ISO Abbreviation:  Pigment Cell Melanoma Res     Publication Date:  2011 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-01-14     Completed Date:  2011-04-22     Revised Date:  2013-05-27    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101318927     Medline TA:  Pigment Cell Melanoma Res     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  21-34     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
John Wiley & Sons A/S. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Mammalian Development Section, National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Embryonic Stem Cells / cytology*
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells / cytology*
Retinal Pigment Epithelium / cytology*,  immunology
Vision, Ocular
Grant Support

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