Document Detail

The neurology of human immunodeficiency virus infection.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  2855754     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
HIV-infected patients are at markedly increased risk for neurological dysfunction, which may occur at any level of the neuraxis (see Table 1). The most common syndromes--AIDS dementia complex, vacuolar myelopathy, and possibly distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy--appear to be related to HIV infection within the nervous system, rather than due to the immunoincompetence caused by HIV. However, the mechanism(s) by which HIV causes these syndromes, e.g., infecting neurons or oligodendroglia directly, interfering with neurotrophic factors, effecting toxic monokine production, etc., is unknown. Early, albeit incomplete, success with azidothymidine is encouraging. Less commonly, neurological syndromes may be secondary to the immunoincompetence produced by HIV. Many different etiologies--most of which are treatable--have been encountered, but a few of these (cerebral toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis, primary CNS lymphoma, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy) are responsible for most of the opportunistic complications. Marked differences in symptoms and signs between AIDS patients and immunologically normal patients may complicate recognition of some of these diseases (e.g., herpes simplex encephalitis). Finally, some HIV-associated syndromes, e.g., inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy and retinal microvasculopathy, are of unknown etiology.
D E Bredesen; R M Levy; M L Rosenblum
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Quarterly journal of medicine     Volume:  68     ISSN:  0033-5622     ISO Abbreviation:  Q. J. Med.     Publication Date:  1988 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1989-10-18     Completed Date:  1989-10-18     Revised Date:  2005-11-16    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0401027     Medline TA:  Q J Med     Country:  ENGLAND    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  665-77     Citation Subset:  IM; X    
Department of Neurology, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco.
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MeSH Terms
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications*
Dementia / etiology
Nervous System Diseases / etiology*
Opportunistic Infections / complications
Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / etiology

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