Document Detail

The neuroendocrine effects of the TASER X26: a brief report.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19019594     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
INTRODUCTION: Law enforcement officers use conducted electrical weapons (CEW) such as the TASER X26 to control violently resistive subjects. There are no studies in the medical literature examining the effects of these weapons on the human stress response. This is the first study to compare the human stress response to conducted electrical weapons, oleoresin capsicum (O.C.), a cold-water tank immersion, and a defensive tactics drill. METHODS: Subjects were randomized to one of the four interventions studied. Subjects received either a 5-s exposure from the TASER X26 CEW with the probes fired into the back from 7 ft, a 5-s spray of O.C., a skin and mucous membrane irritant, to the eyes, a 45-s exposure of the hand and forearm in a 0 degrees C cold water tank, or a 1-min defensive tactics drill. RESULTS: Alpha-amylase had the greatest increase from baseline at 10-15 min with the defensive tactics drill. Cortisol had the greatest increase at 15-20 min with O.C. Cortisol remained most elevated at 40-60 min in the defensive tactics drill group. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary data suggests that physical exertion during custodial arrest may be most activating of the human stress response, particularly the sympathetic-adrenal-medulla axis. This may suggest that techniques to limit the duration of this exertion may be the safest means to apprehend subjects, particularly those at high-risk for in-custody death. Conducted electrical weapons were not more activating of the human stress response than other uses of force.
D Dawes; J Ho; J Miner
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2008-11-18
Journal Detail:
Title:  Forensic science international     Volume:  183     ISSN:  1872-6283     ISO Abbreviation:  Forensic Sci. Int.     Publication Date:  2009 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-01-12     Completed Date:  2009-05-19     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7902034     Medline TA:  Forensic Sci Int     Country:  Ireland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  14-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
Lompoc Valley Medical Center, Lompoc, CA, United States.
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MeSH Terms
Cold Temperature
Electric Stimulation / instrumentation*
Forensic Medicine
Hydrocortisone / analysis*
Irritants / administration & dosage
Law Enforcement*
Motor Skills
Plant Extracts / administration & dosage
Prospective Studies
Saliva / chemistry
Stress, Physiological*
alpha-Amylases / analysis*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Irritants; 0/Plant Extracts; 0/oleoresins; 50-23-7/Hydrocortisone; EC

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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