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A model to investigate the mechanisms underlying the emergence and development of independent sitting.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  25442426     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
When infants first begin to sit independently, they are highly unstable and unable to maintain upright sitting posture for more than a few seconds. Over the course of 3 months, the sitting ability of infants drastically improves. To investigate the mechanisms controlling the development of sitting posture, a single-degree-of-freedom inverted pendulum model was developed. Passive muscle properties were modeled with a stiffness and damping term, while active neurological control was modeled with a time-delayed proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. The findings of the simulations suggest that infants primarily utilize passive muscle stiffness to remain upright when they first begin to sit. This passive control mechanism allows the infant to remain upright so that active feedback control mechanisms can develop. The emergence of active control mechanisms allows infants to integrate sensory information into their movements so that they can exhibit more adaptive sitting.
Authors:
Kathleen M O'Brien; Jing Zhang; Philip R Walley; Jeffrey F Rhoads; Jeffrey M Haddad; Laura J Claxton
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2014-11-28
Journal Detail:
Title:  Developmental science     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1467-7687     ISO Abbreviation:  Dev Sci     Publication Date:  2014 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-12-2     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  2014-12-3    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9814574     Medline TA:  Dev Sci     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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