Document Detail

The macrophage and the apoptotic cell: an innate immune interaction viewed simplistically?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15312130     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Macrophages play important roles in the clearance of dying and dead cells. Typically, and perhaps simplistically, they are viewed as the professional phagocytes of apoptotic cells. Clearance by macrophages of cells undergoing apoptosis is a non-phlogistic phenomenon which is often associated with actively anti-inflammatory phagocyte responses. By contrast, macrophage responses to necrotic cells, including secondarily necrotic cells derived from uncleared apoptotic cells, are perceived as proinflammatory. Indeed, persistence of apoptotic cells as a result of defective apoptotic-cell clearance has been found to be associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. Here we review the mechanisms by which macrophages interact with, and respond to, apoptotic cells. We suggest that macrophages are especially important in clearing cells at sites of histologically visible, high-rate apoptosis and that, otherwise, apoptotic cells are removed largely by non-macrophage neighbours. We challenge the view that necrotic cells, including persistent apoptotic cells are, of necessity, proinflammatory and immunostimulatory and suggest that, under appropriate circumstances, persistent apoptotic cells can provide a prolonged anti-inflammatory stimulus.
Christopher D Gregory; Andrew Devitt
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Immunology     Volume:  113     ISSN:  0019-2805     ISO Abbreviation:  Immunology     Publication Date:  2004 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-08-17     Completed Date:  2004-10-12     Revised Date:  2013-06-09    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0374672     Medline TA:  Immunology     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1-14     Citation Subset:  IM    
University of Edinburgh MRC Centre for Inflammation Research, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, UK.
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MeSH Terms
Apoptosis / physiology*
Autoimmune Diseases / immunology
Cell Communication / physiology
Inflammation / pathology
Macrophages / physiology*
Phagocytosis / physiology

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