Document Detail

A lowered salt intake does not compromise iodine status in Cape Town, South Africa, where salt iodization is mandatory.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23274097     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: Universal salt iodization is an effective strategy to optimize population-level iodine. At the same time as salt-lowering initiatives are encouraged globally, there is concern about compromised iodine intakes. This study investigated whether salt intakes at recommended levels resulted in a suboptimal iodine status in a country where salt is the vehicle for iodine fortification.
METHODS: Three 24-h urine samples were collected for the assessment of urinary sodium and one sample was taken for urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) in a convenience sample of 262 adult men and women in Cape Town, South Africa. Median UIC was compared across categories of sodium excretion equivalent to salt intakes lower than 5, 5 to 9, and greater than or equal to 9 g/d.
RESULTS: The median UIC was 120 μg/L (interquartile range 75.3-196.3), indicating iodine sufficiency. Less one-fourth (23.2%) of subjects had urinary sodium excretion values within the desirable range (salt <5 g/d), 50.7% had high values (5-9 g/d), and 22.8% had very high values (≥9 g/d). No association between urinary iodine and mean 3 × 24-h urinary sodium concentration was found (r = 0.087, P = 0.198) and UIC status did not differ according to urinary sodium categories (P = 0.804).
CONCLUSION: In a country with mandatory universal salt iodization, consumers with salt intakes within the recommended range (<5 g/d) are iodine replete, and median UIC does not differ across categories of salt intake. This indicates that much of the dietary salt is provided from non-iodinated sources, presumably added to processed foods.
Karen E Charlton; Pieter L Jooste; Krisela Steyn; Naomi S Levitt; Abhijeet Ghosh
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article     Date:  2012-12-28
Journal Detail:
Title:  Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.)     Volume:  29     ISSN:  1873-1244     ISO Abbreviation:  Nutrition     Publication Date:  2013 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-03-07     Completed Date:  2013-09-04     Revised Date:  2013-11-27    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8802712     Medline TA:  Nutrition     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  630-4     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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MeSH Terms
Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use
Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects
Diet, Sodium-Restricted* / adverse effects
Food, Fortified*
Health Promotion*
Hypertension / diet therapy*,  drug therapy,  prevention & control,  urine
Iodine / administration & dosage,  deficiency*,  urine
Mandatory Programs
Middle Aged
Nutritional Status*
Sodium / urine
Sodium Chloride, Dietary / administration & dosage
South Africa
Urban Health
Young Adult
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Antihypertensive Agents; 0/Sodium Chloride, Dietary; 0/iodized salt; 9679TC07X4/Iodine; 9NEZ333N27/Sodium
Comment In:
Nutrition. 2013 Nov-Dec;29(11-12):1431-3   [PMID:  24035057 ]
Nutrition. 2013 Nov-Dec;29(11-12):1431   [PMID:  23948340 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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