Document Detail

A longitudinal analysis of the development of infant facial expressions in response to acute pain: immediate and regulatory expressions.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23103435     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Facial expressions during infancy are important to examine, as infants do not have the language skills to describe their experiences. This is particularly vital in the context of pain, where infants depend solely on their caregivers for relief. The objective of the current study was to investigate the development of negative infant facial expressions in response to immunization pain over the first year of life. Infant facial expressions were examined longitudinally using a subsample of 100 infants that were each videotaped during their 2-, 4-, 6-, and 12-month routine immunization appointments. Infant facial expressions were coded using BabyFACS (facial action coding system) for the first minute after a painful needle prick. Facial expressions were examined with a catalogue of the most commonly occurring facial expressions. Results demonstrated that clear differences were seen over ages. Infants display a variety of facial expressions with some of the components of adult pain expressions immediately after the needle and they abate shortly after. However, infants did not display adult expressions of discrete negative emotions. Instead, infants displayed a variety of generalized pain and distress faces aimed at gaining caregiver aid. The development of nonverbal communication in infants, particularly facial expressions, remains an important area of inquiry. Further study into accurately measuring infant negative emotions, pain, and distress is warranted.
Sara Ahola Kohut; Rebecca Pillai Riddell; David B Flora; Harriet Oster
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-10-2
Journal Detail:
Title:  Pain     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1872-6623     ISO Abbreviation:  Pain     Publication Date:  2012 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-29     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7508686     Medline TA:  Pain     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
York University, The O.U.C.H. Lab, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health, 119 Behavioural Sciences Building, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M3J 1P3.
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