Document Detail


The laryngeal chemoreflex: an evaluation of the normoxic response.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19172628     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
OBJECTIVES: The laryngeal chemoreflex is a reflexive central apnea, bradycardia, and cardiovascular collapse that occurs in young, maturing mammals in response to exposure of the laryngeal mucosa to acidic and/or organic stimuli. The severity of the laryngeal chemoreflex varies within a species from one animal to another, and in some animals, the response can be fatal. This study seeks to identify those factors that contribute to fatal laryngeal chemoreflex responses when the larynx is stimulated under normoxic conditions, and to define how the normoxic response differs from the hypoxic laryngeal chemoreflex response. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective study evaluating the response to laryngeal stimulation of 80 newborn piglets. METHODS: The laryngeal chemoreflex response was elicited from 67 piglets under normoxic conditions. The data were collected from a combination of three separate experimental protocols, each of which included inducing the laryngeal chemoreflex under normoxic conditions as the first step. The physiologic response was recorded with a combination of arterial blood gas, pulse oximetry, blood pressure, and continuous cardiac monitoring. RESULTS: Resumption of respirations occurred when the pCO(2) rose by a mean of 8.34 (Standard Deviation [SD] = 4.8) mmHg, regardless of response severity (ANOVA, P > .05). Moderate (requiring supplemental O(2) for recovery) and profound (fatal) responders had a significantly higher prestimulation pCO(2) (95% confidence interval [CI] 39.8-44.8 mmHg and 40.5-46.4 mmHg, respectively) than did mild (recovery without assistance) responders (95% CI 36.8-40.8 mmHg, ANOVA, P < .05). Baseline pH was statistically significantly different as a function of response severity (95% CI profound: 7.29-7.37, moderate: 7.33-7.38, and mild 7.36-7.39, P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Accumulation of arterial CO(2) is associated with resumption of respirations during the normoxic laryngeal chemoreflex. The combination of an elevated prestimulation pCO(2) and a low prestimulation pH predicts a profound laryngeal chemoreflex response under normoxic conditions.
Authors:
Yolanda D Heman-Ackah; Kerri J Pernell; George S Goding
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Laryngoscope     Volume:  119     ISSN:  1531-4995     ISO Abbreviation:  Laryngoscope     Publication Date:  2009 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-02-02     Completed Date:  2009-03-31     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8607378     Medline TA:  Laryngoscope     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  370-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19103, USA. phillyvoicemd@aol.com
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Analysis of Variance
Animals
Animals, Newborn
Blood Gas Analysis
Blood Pressure Determination
Electric Stimulation
Electromyography
Laryngeal Mucosa / physiopathology
Laryngeal Muscles / physiopathology
Larynx / physiopathology*
Male
Oximetry
Prospective Studies
Reflex / physiology*
Reflex, Abnormal / physiology*
Swine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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