Document Detail

The islet beta-cell: fuel responsive and vulnerable.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18774732     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The pancreatic beta-cell senses blood nutrient levels and is modulated by neurohormonal signals so that it secretes insulin according to the need of the organism. Nutrient sensing involves marked metabolic activation, resulting in the production of coupling signals that promote insulin biosynthesis and secretion. The beta-cell's high capacity for nutrient sensing, however, necessitates reduced protection to nutrient toxicity. This potentially explains why in susceptible individuals, chronic fuel surfeit results in beta-cell failure and type 2 diabetes. Here we discuss recent insights into first, the biochemical basis of beta-cell signaling in response to glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and second, beta-cell nutrient detoxification. We emphasize the emerging role of glycerolipid/fatty acid cycling in these processes.
Christopher J Nolan; Marc Prentki
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review     Date:  2008-09-06
Journal Detail:
Title:  Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM     Volume:  19     ISSN:  1043-2760     ISO Abbreviation:  Trends Endocrinol. Metab.     Publication Date:  2008 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-09-22     Completed Date:  2009-01-07     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9001516     Medline TA:  Trends Endocrinol Metab     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  285-91     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Endocrinology, The Canberra Hospital, Medical School, The Australian National University, Garran, ACT 2605, Australia.
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MeSH Terms
Amino Acids / metabolism,  pharmacology
Energy Metabolism / drug effects,  physiology
Fatty Acids / metabolism,  pharmacology
Food* / adverse effects
Glucose / metabolism,  pharmacology
Insulin-Secreting Cells / drug effects,  metabolism*,  physiology*
Metabolic Networks and Pathways / drug effects,  physiology
Models, Biological
Pancreatic Diseases / etiology*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Amino Acids; 0/Fatty Acids; 50-99-7/Glucose

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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