Document Detail

An integrated biomechanical analysis of high speed incline and level treadmill running.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10862544     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
PURPOSE: Recent sprint training regimens have used high-speed incline treadmill running to provide enhanced loading of muscles responsible for increasing forward running speed. The goal of this study was to document the joint kinematics, EMG, and swing-phase kinetics of incline treadmill running at 4.5 m x s(-1) with a 30% grade, and compare these data to that of level running under similar conditions. METHODS: Sagittal plane video (200 Hz) and EMG from eight lower extremity muscles were recorded during each of three locomotion conditions: incline running at 4.5 m x s(-1) and 30% grade (INC), level running at 4.5 m x s(-1) (LSS), and level running at the same stride frequency as INC (LSSF). A rigid body model was used to estimate net muscle power and work values at the hip, knee, and ankle during swing. Timing and amplitude of EMG signals for each muscle relative to footstrike were compared between conditions. RESULTS: Stride frequency and percentage of stride spent in stance were significantly higher during INC (1.78 Hz; 32.8%) than in the LSS (1.39 Hz; 28.8%) condition. Stride frequency played an important role, as most measures were more similar between INC and LSSF. Extensor range of motion of all joints during push-off was higher for INC. During INC, average EMG amplitude of the gastrocnemius, soleus, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and gluteus maximus were higher during stance, whereas the hamstrings activity amplitudes were lower. Average power and energy generated during hip flexion and extension in the swing phase were greatest during INC. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that compared with LSSF and LSS, INC provides enhanced muscular loading of key mono- and bi-articular muscles during both swing and stance phases.
S C Swanson; G E Caldwell
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Medicine and science in sports and exercise     Volume:  32     ISSN:  0195-9131     ISO Abbreviation:  Med Sci Sports Exerc     Publication Date:  2000 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2000-10-25     Completed Date:  2000-10-25     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8005433     Medline TA:  Med Sci Sports Exerc     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1146-55     Citation Subset:  IM; S    
The Orthopedic Specialty Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT 84107, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Hip Joint / physiology
Knee Joint / physiology
Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
Range of Motion, Articular
Running / physiology*

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