Document Detail

The influence of the hand's acceleration and the relative contribution of drag and lift forces in front crawl swimming.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  25429796     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the hand's acceleration on the propulsive forces and the relative contribution of the drag and lift on their resultant force in the separate phases of the front crawl underwater arm stroke. Ten female swimmers swam one trial of all-out 25-m front crawl. The underwater motion of each swimmer's right hand was recorded using four camcorders and four periscope systems. Anatomical landmarks were digitised, and the propulsive forces generated by the swimmer's hand were estimated from the kinematic data in conjunction with hydrodynamic coefficients. When the hand's acceleration was taken into account, the magnitude of the propulsive forces was greater, with the exception of the mean drag force during the final part of the underwater arm stroke. The mean drag force was greater than the mean lift force in the middle part, while the mean lift force was greater than the mean drag force in the final part of the underwater arm stroke. Thus, swimmers should accelerate their hands from the beginning of their backward motion, press the water with large pitch angles during the middle part and sweep with small pitch angles during the final part of their underwater arm stroke.
Vassilios Gourgoulis; Alexia Boli; Nikolaos Aggeloussis; Panagiotis Antoniou; Argyris Toubekis; Georgios Mavromatis
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2014-11-28
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of sports sciences     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1466-447X     ISO Abbreviation:  J Sports Sci     Publication Date:  2014 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-11-28     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  2014-11-29    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8405364     Medline TA:  J Sports Sci     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  1-17     Citation Subset:  -    
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